Ipswich PC-1186 - History

Ipswich PC-1186 - History

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(PC-1186: dp. 295, 1. 174'; b. 23'; dr. 8'; s. 19 k.; cpl.
65; a.13'',140mm.,220mm.,2rkt.,4dcp.,2dct.)

PC-1186 was laid down by the Gibbs Gas Engine Co., Jacksonville, Fla., 20 April 1943; launched 27 September; sponsored by Mrs. George Wharton, and commissioned 9 June 1944, Lt. (j.g. ) Paul L. Adams in command.

After shakedown and ASW training off Miami, Fla., PC-1186 was assigned to convoy escort duty in the Atlantic. From August to December she performed escort, patrol, and reconnaissance duties from the coast of New England to Guantanamo, Cuba. Late in December 1944 sho arrived Coco Solo, C.Z., for patrol and escort operations between the Panama Canal and Cuba.

PC-1186 continued these services for the remainder of World War II. After the war, she patrolled off the Canal Zone and performed training exercises with submarines until 7 May 1946 when she sailed for Charleston, S.C. The sub chaser decommissioned at New York 22 July 1946, and joined the Atlantic Reserve Fleet, While berthed at Boston, PC-1186 was named Ipswich 15 February 1956. Ipsich ~was struck from the Navy List 1 April 1959 and sold to Hughes Brothers, Inc., 16 September 1959.

Ipswich School – a brief history

From these humble origins the school’s early history took on a very different course with the rise to power of former pupil Thomas Wolsey. Wolsey set about refounding the school with a view to providing pupils for his college in Oxford. Thomas Cromwell, Wolsey’s trusted adviser, took on the task and dissolved twelve local monasteries to pay for the school.

However, just over a year later Wolsey, unable to secure a much-needed divorce for Henry VIII, fell from grace and the monarch was keen to close his new school. Stones intended for new school buildings were shipped from Ipswich to London and used to build what is now the Palace of Whitehall. Against the odds Ipswich School survived. Cromwell persuaded
Henry to grant the school its first charter, which was later confirmed by Elizabeth I.

By the nineteenth century Ipswich School moved to its current site next to Christchurch Park. Prince Albert laid the foundation stone of the main school building in 1851. Shortly after this in 1883 the Prep School was
established for children aged 7 to 11 years, providing a stepping stone to the Senior School. It moved to its striking new building in 2006.

Ipswich School can claim a number of distinguished former pupils: Thomas Wolsey, Cardinal, Archbishop of York and Lord Chancellor of England under Henry VIII, almost certainly attended the school. Eminent men of action include Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, the English commander at the battle of Flodden, and Rear Admiral Sir Philip Broke. He captained HMS Shannon in a celebrated engagement with the USS Chesapeake. The novelist Henry Rider Haggard was a pupil here in the 1870s and distinguished artists such as Sir Edward Poynter, President of the Royal Academy, Charles Keene of Punch, and Edward Ardizzone attended the school. In the field of science, the pioneering neuro-physiologist and Nobel Prizewinner Sir Charles Sherrington is the most distinguished Old Ipswichian to date.


The Bone Detectives is a Channel 4 programme in which Tori Herridge and a team of scientists piece together life stories behind unearthed bones.

In the latest episode, the team focus on a long-forgotten cemetery in Ipswich, where 1400 bodies reveal signs of hard labour, disease, murder, and possibly the country’s first post-mortem.

I was asked by the production team to help with some of the research they were undertaking for the programme and then invited to feature in a short interview in the episode.

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In this episode I speak to Pat Grimwade from the Ipswich Maritime Trust about her new publication about Ipswich’s little-known connections to the Hanseatic League.

The Hanseatic League was a confederation of merchant gilds that once dominated much of the Late Medieval Period European trade, connecting ports from Germany, the Netherlands, Scandinavia, the Baltic as well as a few in Britain, including Ipswich. At its peak the Hanseatic League even put together a military force that won a war against Denmark.

Pat tells us about how Ipswich came to become a Hanseatic port, what kind of things were traded to and from Ipswich during that period, and what physical evidence remains of the town’s Hanseatic connections today.

Can you see the striking similarity between these medieval seals from Danzig (modern-day Gdańsk, Poland) and Elbing (modern-day Elbląg, Poland) and Ipswich’s own town seal? Find out more about this too in this episode of the podcast.

You can listen and subscribe to the podcast on iTunes, Spotify etc or stream it online: https://anchor.fm/caleb-howgego

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This episode features a conversation with Hannah Cutler from the Suffolk County Council Archaeological Service about early prehistoric Ipswich.

Hannah talks about what the area that would one day become Ipswich was like during the Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) and Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age). Hannah also tells us about the work she is currently doing to update the Historic Environment Record for this area, which involves improving the information held online that members of the public can explore for themselves by visiting https://heritage.suffolk.gov.uk/

We also hear about some historic local excavations of early prehistoric finds, including by Nina Layard, a pioneering early female archaeologist and antiquarian.

You can listen on iTunes, Spotify etc or by streaming it online: https://anchor.fm/caleb-howgego

Nina Layard, pickaxe in hand, who led the Foxhall Road excavation in Ipswich 1903-1905

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The Orwell Bridge across the River Orwell

You can listen to the episode by searching for the podcast on iTunes, Spotify etc or by streaming it online: https://anchor.fm/caleb-howgego

In this episode I speak to Andy Parker about how the River Orwell came to be gifted to Ipswich by King Henry VIII in 1519 and why it is that Ipswich appears to be the only town in the country to own a river.

Andy volunteers for the Ipswich Maritime Trust, which seeks to protect and promote the astonishing maritime history and heritage of the River Orwell and Ipswich. Andy wrote an article for the Ipswich Star explaining how Ipswich came to be gifted the River Orwell that you can read by following this link:

I also speak to my Dad, David Howgego, about how he came to be a Freeman of Ipswich and what additional rights (if any) Freeman are actually entitled to today.

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This mini episode of the podcasts looks at the history of Chestnut Pond, located on the eastern outskirts of Ipswich in Rushmere St. Andrew, and its past connections to smuggling.

It also retells another local story about how a place called Cat House once played a part in smuggling on the River Orwell.

You can find the episode on iTunes, Spotify etc or stream it online: https://anchor.fm/caleb-howgego

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I was very kindly recently asked on to Lesley Dolphin’s BBC Radio Suffolk programme as a sofa guest to talk about local history and how I became interested in it. This is the audio from my interview from the programme that aired on 16th March 2020.

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Ipswich wasn’t always the relatively peaceable town we find it today. There was once a time it was subject to raids, occasionally even from continental marauders. One way the people of medieval Ipswich tried to bring greater security to their town was by the building of a defensive perimeter. Today there appears to be no trace of an ancient town wall in Ipswich, so what were the town defences and when did they disappear?

A record survives that mentions town ditches being dug in 1203 but this may have been referring to the extension of an even older defensive line. While some references are made to town walls in documents over the following several centuries, more often the defences are referred to as the “great ditches of the town”. An order in 1604 for a gravel path to be laid upon the top of the walls makes it clear that most, if not all, of the ramparts at this point were an earthen bank rather than a stone wall. It therefore seems probable that the defences consisted of a line of ditches and earthen ramparts with walls connecting them at their weakest points. This defensive line would have curved round the west, north and east edges of Ipswich – the southern edge of town ran down to the River Orwell. As the town grew, communities developed on the outside of the ramparts but those living inside enjoyed greater security although paid more tax for the privilege.

While the extent to which stone walls where used seems to have been minimal, there were certainly stone gates placed at intervals around the town ramparts. Ipswich has historically been more of a centre for trade than a military stronghold and the gates were used as much to regulate trade as for security. Cart-loads of goods would arrive at these gates and then be either allowed in or refused entry to the town. One of the most impressive of these was the West Gate, an imposing structure with battlements, which in 1448 was converted to also house a gaol for many years.

Careful inspection of John Speed’s map of 1610 shows the town walls (particularly clear north of the town. The key also lists the various town gates.

The Westgate was demolished in the 1780s and by the early 1900s pretty much all of the ramparts, ditches and gates had disappeared. The last obvious place any of the former defences could be seen was to the north of the town where some Victorian Houses were perched on top of an earthen bank. This area was then flattened and turned into a space for a car park and later became the bus station at Tower Ramparts.

A photograph of Tower Ramparts shopping centre taken in 2014 before it was redeveloped and renamed Sailmakers

While the physical remains have disappeared, the memory of the ramparts and gates live on today in place and street names in Ipswich such as Tower Ramparts and Northgate Street. The nearest we can get to seeing any of the town defences now is by paying a visit to the Halberd Inn, as it is said that the last traces of the North Gate have been incorporated into the cellar of this building.

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Episode 2 – 17th Century Ipswich and the East Anglian Witch-Hunts

In the year 1645 the biggest witch-hunt in English history got underway and East Anglia was at its grim centre. Hundreds of people were hanged in East Anglia during the following few years after being put on trial for alleged crimes of witchcraft. However, one woman named Mary Lackland who lived in Ipswich was sentenced to the especially extreme sentence of being burned for her purported crimes.

In this episode of the podcast I speak to David Jones about his book The Ipswich Witch, Mary Lackland and the Suffolk Witch Hunts.

We talk about what life would have been like for people living in 17th century Ipswich, David’s ideas about what may have led to Mary Lackland’s trial and execution, methods used by witch-finders to test for the innocence or guilt of the accused, and what might have been behind the emergence of witch-trials at such an extreme level during the 1640s.

The podcast is available on iTunes, Spotify and most other podcast providers. If you don’t have access to a device with a podcast app you can also listen by following this link listen to the Ipswich History Podcast

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I’m pleased to announce that a new book I’ve been working on called Ipswich in 50 Buildings will be published on 15th June 2019.

I will be celebrating the release of the book with a book signing event at Ipswich Museum on Saturday 6th July at 2pm where the book will also be available to buy from the museum shop. All are very welcome to attend – it would be great to see you there!

Here’s the blurb if you would like to know more about Ipswich in 50 Buildings:

Ipswich has a fascinating history dating back to its Anglo-Saxon roots as a settlement on the banks of the River Orwell in East Anglia. Since then, the town has been one of England’s most important ports, a centre for the medieval wool trade, and in the Victorian era developed into a thriving industrial hub. The distinctive history of Ipswich is embodied in the buildings that have shaped the town through the centuries, as successive generations have left their own architectural marks.

Ipswich in 50 Buildings explores the rich history of the town through a selection of its architectural gems, from magnificent medieval churches and Tudor treasures such as Christchurch Mansion, to modern masterpieces such as the groundbreaking design of the Willis Building. Author and historian Caleb Howgego celebrates Ipswich’s architectural heritage in a new and accessible way as he guides the reader around the town’s historic and modern buildings.

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As you’ll know if you’re a long-time reader of this blog, I’m a big fan of the Suffolk Archaeologist Basil Brown. I made a podcast about him earlier this year, which you can listen to here

I’m going to be leading a Museum Secrets event at Ipswich Museum about Basil Brown (who was once a Museum Attendant at Ipswich Museum himself) on Sunday 25th November 2018, 2.15-3.15pm. It’s free and a drop-in event so there’s no need to book to attend.

More information about the event can be found by following this link: Museum Secrets – Basil Brown: Suffolk’s Archaeologist

Sixth Form

A Level History provides an interesting and challenging course which will enhance your skills of analysis and ability to write persuasive, lucid arguments. It is a qualification which is well regarded by competitive universities whether you are applying for an Arts, Social Science or Science degree.

You will be encouraged by teachers who are working in their specialist areas. Courses are delivered using materials written by the department and supported by a wide range of relevant books.

You will be guided in the direction of further reading as your own interests develop. You will be encouraged to argue and debate both with your peers and teachers. Over time you will also be expected to work independently and become a self-sufficient learner. Most importantly you will cover some of the most fascinating and controversial aspects of modern History.

In Year 12 we study the history of Germany and West Germany from 1918-1989, including an investigation into the historical debate around the causes of World War II. This is accompanied by a paper that considers the Rise and Fall of Fascism in Italy c1911-1946. In Year 13 we go on to consider the relationship between Ireland and the Union c1774-1923. There is also a coursework module where students will produce an independent piece of work on a historical debate related to the Holocaust.

The exam board is Edexcel. An extensive revision programme is provided in the run up to exams.

“I have just been awarded a First Class degree in International History from the University of Leeds …and I truly believe that this would not have been possible without your continued support and encouragement.” Former A Level History student.

Follow the Ipswich School History Department on twitter @IpswichHistory.

Exam results

The average of the results in History over the most recent three year period is:


Originally in a purpose-built late Victorian building, the functions of museum, library and art gallery were combined. The library was removed in the early 20th century but the Art Gallery and the Museum continued to share premises into the 1970s.

Museums as Inspiration

When the Museum and Art Gallery were linked the museum collections provided direct inspiration for the work of both students and the staff. Some of the early works of Maggi Hambling and the bird sculptures of Bernard Reynolds provide an obvious link.

Many other artists have, and continue to be, inspired by museum collections especially the 'Cabinets of Curiosities' idea which formed the origins of modern museums and the spirit of which still continues to imbue some modern museums such as the Pitt Rivers or the Victorian Gallery in Ipswich Museum. The early works of Damien Hirst drew direct inspiration from this theme.

A number of prominent artists, such as Mark Dion, continue to use the ideas and systems of scientific and museum cataloguing and classification as a source for their works.

The marriage of a museum, especially of the Cabinet of Curiosities idea, and contemporary art has a long and well respected tradition and something that can continue to be embodied in the new combined venue.

20th Century Art

The Benton End Group (sometimes called The East Anglian School of Painting and Drawing) was opened by Cedric Morris (1889-1982) and Arthur Lett Haines (d.1978), first at Dedham in 1937 and from 1940 to the late 1970s at Benton End, near Hadleigh Suffolk. It was a great influence on many Suffolk painters and made a vital contribution to art teaching in the east of England for forty years.

Benton End was run on very idiosyncratic lines. There was no formal teaching, more the establishment of an environment in which artists could explore their potential. The atmosphere inspired many artists and was a formative experience in the early careers of Lucien Freud and Maggi Hambling among others. There are several paintings already in the collection at Ipswich by artists associated with Benton End, including Cedric Morris, Arthur Lett-Haines, Maggi Hambling, Lucy Harwood, Joan Warburton and Glyn Morgan. Other notable figures influenced by Cedric Morris and the group also included Beth Chatto.

The Ipswich School of Art also attracted many talented artists, sculptors and printmakers to its staff, including Bernard Reynolds, Leonard Squirrel, Lawrence Self and Colin Moss who are represented in the collection. Some notable students include Maggi Hambling and Brian Eno.

The proximity of the two schools meant that a number of artists had links to both or crossed between them including most notably Maggi Hambling and Bernard Reynolds. At this moment there are also some opportunities to significantly increase the works by some of these artists, including Cedric Morris, both as examples of their art but also as illustrations of how they worked.

Ipswich, Suffolk

At his death in 1551, wealthy merchant Henry Tooley left a large sum to be used to provide relief and accommodation for the poor of Ipswich. In 1569, the foundation set up in his name acquired the former Dominican priory, on what is now Foundation Street, to establish what was effectively the town's first workhouse, which became known as Christ's Hospital. It could accommodate 40 inmates comprising both the 'innocent' poor (the aged, orphaned, widowed and sick), and the 'lazy' poor (vagrants, vagabonds and beggars). In 1574, a major rebuilding took place on the site and workshops were included to provide 40 people with work such as carding, spinning and weaving. Following the passing of the 1601 Poor relief Act, which placed responsibility for relieving the on individual parishes, Christ's Hospital appears to have stopped being a municipal workhouse and instead taken on the role of a charity school for educating poor children.

A parliamentary report of 1777 listed a dozen parish workhouses in operation in Ipswich: St Clement (with accommodation for up to 70 inmates), St Helen (10), St Lawrence (25), St Margaret (100), St Mary at Elms (10), St Mary at the Key (25), St Mary Stoke (30), St Mary Tower (30), St Matthew (30), St Nicholas (20), St Peter (28), and St Stephen (24).

After 1834

Ipswich Poor Law Union was formed on 9th September 1835. Its operation was overseen by an elected Board of Guardians, 20 in number, representing its 14 constituent parishes as listed below (figures in brackets indicate numbers of Guardians if more than one):

County of Suffolk: St Clement's (3), St Helen, St Lawrence, St Margaret (3), St Mary-at-Elms, St Mary-at-the-Quay, St Mary Stoke, St Mary-at-the-Town, St Matthew (2), St Nicholas, St Peter (2), St Stephen, Westerfield, Whitton.

The population falling within the Union at the 1831 census had been 20,528 &mdash ranging from Whitton (population 346) to St Clement's (4,779). The average annual poor-rate expenditure for the period 1833-35 had been £13,685 or 13s.4d. per head of the population.

Great Whip Street Workhouse

The new Ipswich Union purchased a 3.5-acre site on Great Whip Street from Christ's Hospital at a cost of £525 for the purpose of erecting a workhouse. Known as St Peter's workhouse, it was erected in 1836-7 at a cost of £6,585 and was intended to accommodate up to 400 inmates. The architect was William Mason who was also responsible for workhouse enlargement schemes at Hartismere and Bury St Edmunds.

The Great Whip Street building was constructed in red brick. Its layout broadly followed the popular cruciform or "square" design. Its entrance block on Great Whip Street contained the board room and receiving wards. To the rear, four accommodation wings radiated from a central octagonal hub. The outer perimeter was formed from single-storey workshops and outbuildings. A chapel was later added at the rear of the building and also an infirmary block. The workhouse location and layout are shown on the 1884 map below.

Ipswich Great Whip Street workhouse site, 1884.

Heath Road Workhouse and Infirmary

In 1898-9, a new pavilion-plan workhouse and infirmary were erected on a green field site at the south side of Woodbridge Road. Its design was opened to competition and the winning plans were submitted by Stephen Salter and H Percy Adams with Lister Newcombe. Building work began in 1896, the builders George Grimwood & Son having contracted a price of £25,773 for the work. The final cost of the workhouse, which could accommodate 369 inmates, was over £30,000. An architects' drawing shows a bird's-eye view of the site.

Ipswich new workhouse and infirmary from the north, 1899.

A receiving block at the north-west of the site contained a porter's lodge, receiving wards and tramp cells. A store-room for pauper's clothing was located on the first floor.

Ipswich entrance lodge from the north-east, 2001.
© Peter Higginbotham.

Ipswich reception block from the north-east, 2001.
© Peter Higginbotham.

The main workhouse building comprised a central administration block connected by corridors to two-storey wings, that for males to the west, and for females to the east. On the ground floor of each wing were dayrooms, bathrooms, lavatories, dormitories, and bed-sitting rooms for the infirm. On the first floor were dormitories. At the front of the central block were the committee room and master's quarters. To the rear of the central block was a 270-seat dining hall which also served as a chapel.

The workhouse infirmary stood at the south of the site.

Ipswich infirmary from the south-east, 2001.
© Peter Higginbotham.

The site location and layout are shown on the 1903 map below.

In 1930, the workhouse infirmary became Ipswich Borough General Infirmary, with the workhouse section continuing as Heathfields Public Assistance Institution. In 1955, the site became the Heath Road Wing of Ipswich General Hospital. The main workhouse building has been demolished but a few of the other blocks survive.

Ipswich former entrance site from the west, 1950s.
© Peter Higginbotham.

Peter Collier, whose parents were in charge of Heathfields from 1937 to 1946, recalls:

My parents and I moved here sometime in 1937 and remained until 1946 when we moved to Salford. My father was appointed Master of the old workhouse and during the war was also appointed Steward of the hospital with responsibility for lay administrative matters. The hospital had a separate nursing matron.

The central block of the workhouse contained a large laundry which catered for both workhouse and infirmary. There was also a large kitchen but I cannot recall whether this served both parts or just the workhouse. The institution also had extensive land to the south of the hospital which comprised a farm, both arable and with livestock (cattle and pigs for certain and there may have been some working horses). There were also orchards. The workhouse had a 'labour yard' under the control of a labour master who oversaw manual work by the able bodied inmates, e.g. sawing logs.

The photograph below is of the front of the workhouse taken by my father in about 1937. Our accommodation comprised the left-hand ground floor and the entire first floor.

Heathfields entrance block from the south-east, c.1937.
© Peter Collier.

Life at the workhouse was not completely devoid of social events, at least as far as the staff and Guardians were concerned, if the picture below of the 1912 "Workhouse Ball" is anything to go by. The texts adorning the walls, however, seem somewhat at odds with proceedings.

Ipswich Workhouse Ball, 1912.
© Peter Collier.

St John's Children's Home

A separate home for pauper children was first proposed by Ipswich Union in around 1870. This was an unusual step for non-metropolitan unions at this time, and may have been the result of space shortage at the Great Whip Street workhouse. Plans were produced in 1871 and 1873 for a long building with a central block flanked by separate wings containing boys' and girls' accommodation. The building, eventually erected at Bloomfield Street in 1879, accommodated 80 boys and 50 girls. The boys were taught to work on the land, and in tailoring, shoe-making and carpentry. The girls were taught needlework and other household skills to equip them for domestic service. A small infirmary was later added.

Ipswich St John's Children's Home, 1927.

Ipswich St John's Children's Home, c.1910.
© Peter Higginbotham.

Ipswich St John's Children's Home, c.1910.
© Peter Higginbotham.

Ipswich St John's Children's Home carpentry workshop, c.1910.
© Peter Higginbotham.

Ipswich St John's Children's Home, early 1900s.
© Peter Higginbotham.

Ipswich St John's Children's Home, early 1900s.
© Peter Higginbotham.

Ipswich St John's Children's Home, early 1900s.
© Peter Higginbotham.

Ipswich St John's Children's Home, early 1900s.
© Peter Higginbotham.

The property, later known as Freelands was demolished in the 1970s. The site is now occupied by a housing estate.




Note: many repositories impose a closure period of up to 100 years for records identifying individuals. Before travelling a long distance, always check that the records you want to consult will be available.

  • Suffolk Record Office, Gatacre Road, Ipswich IP1 2LQ. Holdings include: Guardians' minute books (1835-1930) Births (1836-1938) Deaths (1836-1933) Creed registers (1906-50) St John's Children's Home creed registers and record books (1882-1950) etc.



Unless otherwise indicated, this page () is copyright Peter Higginbotham. Contents may not be reproduced without permission.


According to records that date all the way back to 1689, the property that is now the Ipswich Inn has been the site of multiples houses. It was originally a brick home owned by Mr. Thomas Bracy, who sold the property to Robert Paine, 'Elder to ye church of Ipswich.' As reported by the records, he was a man foremost in zeal for the educational advancement of the community. In 1689, Mr. Paine passed possession of his mansion and three acres of land, with orchard, garden, etc., to his son Robert Paine Jr., Feb. 12, 1689 (IPS. Deeds 5:590).

A year later, the property which consisted of and two and three quarter&rsquos acres, was sold to Mr. Francis Wainwright, Sept. 30, 1690 (Ips. Deeds 5:326.) The Wainwrights were a famous family --- Francis, the immigrant, served with great distinction in the Pequot war in his young manhood. He became a prosperous merchant and prominent citizen. He died on May 19, 1692.

His son, also named Francis, graduated from Harvard College in 1686. He was the Colonel of a regiment, Town Clerk, Representative in General Court, Feoffee and Justice of the General Sessions Court. He died on Aug. 3, 1711.

In the forty-eighth year of his age In 1740, the property was again sold to Capt. Thomas Staniford. Capt Staniford, according to the records, was a &ldquogentlemen&rdquo who occupied the house until his death on Feb 28, 1740. His will was filed Sept. 7, 1778 (Pro. Rec. 353: 206), and the inventory of his estate, filed Dec. 9, 1778 (353: 316) reveals the furnishings of one of the fine mansions of the Revolutionary period, at the inflated values that prevailed at that time. Some items are of interest, which specifies the wardrobe of a gentleman of that day and various articles of furniture.

The son of Capt Thomas Staniford was also a Captain and his name was James. Capt. James Staniford occupied the mansion, which is often alluded to as the "old brick," because it had brick ends, and kept an inn. He also purchased of Richard Dummer Jewett an undivided half of five and three quarter&rsquos acres of the land adjoining, May 28, 1803 (172: 178).

The heirs of James Staniford and his son James sold "the brick house" and eight and a half acres to Dr. Thomas Manning, June 10, 1830 (259: 76). Dr. Manning sold "the old brick" to his son, Dr. Joseph Manning of Charleston, S. C., Dec. 27, 1830 (266: 73) and he passed it on to John Jewett, Dec. 9, 1835 (290: 121). Mr. Jewett tore down the old mansion, which was still in excellent preservation, and built on its site the brick dwelling, which was purchased a few years ago and torn down by Mr. John B. Brown and Mr. Harry B. Brown.

The property passed through several more families and eventually was owned by Susanna Wilcomb on March 27, 1814, who sold her lot to the trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church. A meeting house was then built on this property and used by the church until the present church was built. The lot was then sold by the trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church to Robert Jordan on May 17, 1862. Robert Jordan was a Civil War veteran who made his living as a general merchant after the war. Mr. Jordan built this house in April of 1863. Years later, the house was owned by Dr. Bailey, a local physician, who treated his patients in his office which was at the rear of the house.

The Robert Jordan house is a fine example of an Italianate-style Victorian, situated on an acre of land in the center of historic Ipswich. The rear of the property features terraced land which was developed growing mulberry bushes for the silkworm/silk industry which flourished in Ipswich in the early 1800s. Interesting architectural features of the house include the Belvedere on the third-floor roof, the curved front stairway, original ceiling moldings, and the ice house at the rear of the main house, which was part of the &ldquosummer kitchen&rdquo. The carriage house is at the back of the property.

Margaret and I bought this house in 1996. We had been on Pleasant Street for twenty-two years, and after our three kids grew up got married, Margaret decided we needed more room. A bed and breakfast was not in our plans but we began to think of the fun it would be meeting new people, and sharing our home with strangers that wanted to pay us for being here (a no-brainer). So, out of those thoughts and dreams, came our B&B, which grew to become The Ipswich Inn.

This is our 20th year. All we wanted and wished for has come true. This has been a great adventure that continues to bring more and more people into our lives that have become friends. We truly hope your stay with us and your meal will be as pleasant and restful as the joy we have in bringing it to you.

The Regent Theatre Ipswich opened in 1929 as a cine-variety hall. At 7.00pm on Monday November 4th, the entrance doors of the new Regent, Ipswich opened and into its spacious foyer crowded nearly 2,000 Ipswich people who had come to witness this momentous occasion.

Ipswich Regent Theatre Opening Night 1929

Opening night screening of The Last of Mrs. Cheyney

1963 Show Poster for The Beatles Headlining at the Ipswich Regent Theatre then known as The Gaumont

The Beatles Headlining at the Ipswich Regent Theatre in 1963 then known as The Gaumont

Outside the theatre a large queue had formed, filing past Botwoods Garage. As a Ransomes steam lorry tooted its whistle, the staff of the Regent lined up for their first inspection by the manager, Albert E. Crabb who checked their ‘electric’ torches.

On the stage, the Mayor of Ipswich, Dr Hossack, performed the opening ceremony musical numbers were played on the brand new Wurlitzer organ by the resident organist Frank Newman F.R.C.O. that included the Merry Wives of Windsor by Otto Nicolai. The film chosen to open the venue then began – “The Last of Mrs Cheyney” starring Norma Shearer and Basil Rathbone – an ‘all-talking’ picture with front circle seats costing 2s / 4d.

The luxurious Regent restaurant enhanced a visit to the theatre and, if desired, tea could be served in any of the fourteen boxes at the rear of the stalls. The boxes and the Manager’s cottage at the rear of the theatre are unique features of the Regent.

Before World War II, the stage was not used to any great extent, although up to the mid-1930’s, the 18 piece Regent Orchestra, under the direction of Louis Baxter frequently entertained the audiences. Most theatre orchestras were disbanded in the late 1930’s and the organ then became the principal musical attraction.

During the war the Regent provided much needed escapism and helped sustain public morale. After the war, The Regent flourished and enjoyed an attendance boom. Also during this period, the stage was employed in the presentation of Ipswich Civic Concerts. The stage was also used for the presentation of Sadler’s Wells Ballet, Carl Rosa Opera and one-night band shows.

The popularity of cinema in the 1930’s and 40’s was so great that another cinema in Ipswich, The Ritz, was opened in 1937. But the advent of television in the 1950’s proved a testing time for cinemas up and down the country and even the highly successful Regent, by now known as the Gaumont, did not survive intact. To allow the cinema to become more profitable, the restaurant was closed down and replaced by the Victor Sylvester Dance Studio.

In the late 1950’s the ‘pop’ music phenomenon exploded. Buddy Holly and the Crickets started off the craze at the Gaumont and since then thousands of international artists have graced the theatre’s stage including the Beatles, Tina Turner, The Bay City Rollers, Tom Jones, Chris Rea, Status Quo and many of today’s top artistes.

From 1958, local musicians and dramatic societies were encouraged to perform at East Anglia’s largest theatre. These included the Ipswich Operatic Society, the Gilbert and Sullivan Society and later the Co-op Juniors. The programme has since included a wide range of productions including professional touring theatre, opera, ballet, comedy and full-scale orchestras.

By 1965 the proprietors, The Rank Organisation, were sufficiently confident of the future to spend £50,000 on a major modernisation and redecoration programme. But by the 1970’s, the large cinemas that had been so successful in the 30’s and 40’s proved to be less economically viable.

The Gaumont’s dance studio was converted to a luxury 200-seat cinema, which could be rented out for use by the local business community. Rank also proposed to convert the main auditorium to a multi-screen complex. However, after a great deal of persuasion, Rank’s plans were abandoned because the auditorium was established as the only local venue of sufficient capacity to stage live shows and concerts despite its limited performance facilities.

The theatre was re-launched in September 1991 after Ipswich Borough Council successfully negotiated the ownership from the Rank Organisation and NCP. Today, Ipswich Borough Council continues to fund the theatre as part of its arts and entertainment portfolio which also includes the Corn Exchange and Ipswich Film Theatre.

Based on an article written by David Lowe, Manager 1958-1989.

Materials and methods

Nanopore sequencing and datasets

Nanopore sequencing data for NA19240 [26], NA12878 [24], and Ashkenazi trio [29] human cell lines are publicly available. A complete description of the datasets, their base calling, mapping, and usage in our study are provided in additional file 1 along with the link to the sources.

We also sequenced the Colo829BL B-lymphoblast cell line using one nanopore PromethION flow cell and Illumina paired-end sequencing at 30× coverage. A complete description of nanopore and Illumina sequencing protocols and data obtained is also provided in Additional file 1.

CpG methylation calling from nanopore data

To call CpG methylation, we benchmarked three model-based approaches: Nanopolish [10], Megalodon [14], and DeepSignal [15]. Nanopolish uses a hidden Markov model to call CpG methylations from raw nanopore data while Megalodon and DeepSignal use neural networks. We called CpG methylation using these tools (with the default parameters) for 12 flow cells of NA12878 publicly available data (Additional file 1) and compared the results with WGBS data from ENCODE project (ENCFF835NTC) [51] and Human Methylation 27 (27k) array from Fraser et al. [25].

Variant calling

We used Clair to call SNVs [22]. We called variants for each chromosome using clair.py callVarBam --threshold 0.2 and the HG122HD34 model. Indels were filtered out. To evaluate variant calling, we compared SNVs called by Clair from nanopore data to those from 1KGP phase 3 [30] (GRCh37 coordinates). Clair’s variant calls were lifted over to GRCh37 human reference genome coordinates using CrossMap [52] for comparison to 1KGP data.

For our in-house Colo829BL sample, we compared Clair variant calls to Strelka [53] v 2.9.10 calls made from paired-end Illumina reads (Additional file 1).

Model training to improve SNV calling

We calculated average qualities and mutation frequencies for each position of each 5-mer window containing an SNV. Mutation frequencies were calculated as the number of instances over coverage for each genomic position in the 5-mer window. Base qualities for a given position were calculated as the average of all base qualities mapped to the position. We used these as inputs to a fully connected artificial neural network classifier composed of four hidden layers with a relu activation function. The first hidden layer is six times larger than the input layer and the size of subsequent hidden layers decreases through a factor two.

We trained three models to compare the classifier using different coverages. NA12878 20 flow cells (24×), NA12878 all flow cells (44×), and HG003 (80×) were used for training. First, we called variants for each dataset using Clair and then determined true and false positives using high-quality variants using the Genome in a Bottle database (GIAB) [27]. Using NA12878 20 flow cell data, a randomly selected balanced dataset of 25 million 5-mers was used for training and 4 million unseen randomly selected 5-mers were used as the validation set. For the NA12878 whole dataset and HG003 sample, the training datasets were 18M and 14.9M, respectively, and validation sets were 2.5M and 2M, respectively (Additional file 2: Fig. S6). The NA12878 20 flow cell model was used for < 30× coverage data, NA12878 all flow cells for 30×–45× coverage data, and HG003 model for > 45 coverage data.

Phasing single nucleotide variants detected from nanopore sequencing

In order to phase nanopore reads and CpG methylation, we first called SNVs for both samples (NA19240 run 1 and Colo829BL) using Clair [22], then used SNVoter to normalize the quality scores and filter out false positives (Fig. 2e and Table 1). Finally, we used WhatsHap [23, 31] v0.18 with the default parameters and --ignore-read-groups on to determine haplotype status for each SNV.

Phasing of nanopore reads and CpG methylations

Phased SNVs and CpG methylation calls were leveraged to phase reads along their CpG methylation to diploid haplotypes. After filtering out a considerable number of false-positive SNVs using SNVoter, we still noticed 10–20% false-positive SNV calls in the datasets (Table 1). These unfiltered false-positive calls, in addition to sequencing errors, can result in reads incorrectly mapping to the SNVs from haplotype 1 when the read would actually belong to the haplotype 2 and vice versa. We noticed reads presenting SNVs from both haplotypes when mapping them to phased SNVs. In NA19240 run 0, out of

3M reads which mapped to at least one phased SNV,

2M reads had SNVs from both haplotypes (Additional file 2: Fig. S7a). To further overcome false positives and the sequencing error problem, we made several filtering steps to account for remnant false-positive SNVs and haplotype ratio (number of SNVs from HP1/HP2 or HP2/HP1). As we analyzed NA19240 run 0, we noticed a lower base quality distribution for false-positive SNVs compared to true positives that could not be filtered out by SNVoter (Additional file 2: Fig. S7b). Therefore, we assigned a minimum base quality threshold to successfully map each read at a phased SNV position. To manage reads containing SNVs from both haplotypes, we defined another threshold, the haplotype ratio, which ensures the reads are assigned to a single haplotype. Based on the quality distribution of SNVs (Additional file 2: Fig. S7b), the proportion of false positives which is between 10 and 20% (Table 1) and haplotype ratios (Additional file 2: Fig. S7a), and also based on empirical phasing at a few known imprinted regions, we used seven as the minimum base quality and 0.75 as haplotype ratio. We also used two as the minimum number of phased SNVs a read must present to be considered for phasing. In order to assign a read to a defined haplotype, a read must satisfy the following criteria:

As the reads are separated to different haplotypes, their associated CpG methylations from processed methylation call file are also separated to the corresponding haplotypes. We have integrated all the steps and filters in our python3 command-line tool, NanoMethPhase. Users can input methylation call data from Nanopolish, phased variant calling file, alignment file, and reference genome to NanoMethPhase (Fig. 3c). NanoMethPhase will output phased reads in aligned format, phased mock WGBS converted format for visualization (see the “Visualization” section Fig. 4c, d), phased methylation calls, and methylation frequency files. The latter can be used for differential methylation analysis to detect DMRs between haplotypes.

Differential methylation analysis

After phasing reads and CpG methylation to haplotypes, NanoMethPhase can perform DMA to detect mono-allelic methylated regions. It uses the DSS R package [36] for DMA. Users can perform all analyses in a command-line interface and directly perform DMA using the dma module of NanoMethPhase on the output phased methylation frequency data to detect DMRs.


NanoMethPhase can convert phased reads into separate mock-WGBS bam files using the processed methylation call file from its methyl_call_processor module. Each cytosine in each CpG in each read is converted to a T, A, or N depending on the CpG being called as methylated, unmethylated, or uncalled. These pairs of files can be loaded into a genome browser such as IGV [34] in bisulfite mode for visualization (Fig. 4c, d).


Strains and growth conditions

Escherichia coli DH5α was used for plasmid amplification. T. reesei Rut-C30 (ATCC 56765), NG14 (ATCC 56767), and PC-3-7 (ATCC 66589) were purchased from ATCC (American type culture collection). T. reesei strain QM6a (ATCC 13631), QM9414 (ATCC 26921), and RL-P37 (NRRL 15709) were respectively purchased from DSMZ (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen), Institute of Microbiology-Chinese Academy of Sciences, and NRRL (Agriculture Research Service Culture Collection). E. coli was cultured in Luria broth (LB) medium. All the strains of T. reesei were cultivated at 28 °C (200 rpm) in 2× Mandels’ medium (1.0 g/L yeast extract, 3 g/L peptone, 0.6 g/L urea, 2.8 g/L (NH4)2SO4, 4.0 g/L KH2PO4, 0.5 g/L CaCl2, 0.6 g/L MgSO4∙7H2O, 5 mg/L FeSO4∙7H2O, 1.6 mg/L MnSO4∙4H2O, 1.4 mg/L ZnSO4∙7H2O, and 20 mg/L CoCl2∙6H2O) in which 2% glucose, 2% lactose, or 1% (w/v) Avicel was used as carbon source [31]. In addition, all these strains were maintained on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates at 28 °C for the generation of conidia.

Plasmid construction, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and transformants screening

The primers used in this study are listed in Additional file 8: Table S2. LML2.1 [32] was used as a skeleton for the two plasmids, plasmidA734 and plasmidA723, to obtain two types of transformants bearing the ACE3-734 and ACE3-723 protein, respectively. The 5′- and 3′-arms of the homology double exchange for ACE3-734 and ACE3-723 sequences were constructed as described by Zhang et al. [26]. The DNA fragment of the 5′-arm of truncated ACE3-723 (approximately 900 bp) was cloned using the genome of Rut-C30 and the primer pair ace3-1/ace3-2723. Similarly, the fragment of the 5′-arm of native ACE3-734 (approximately 1000 bp) was cloned using the QM6a genome and the primer pair ace3-1/ace3-2734. The 3′-arms of these structures (about 1000 bp) were amplified from Rut-C30 or QM6a genomic DNA using the primer pair ace3-3/ace3-4. KOD-Plus-Neo (TOYOBO, Japan) was used for PCR. Next, the 5′- and 3′-arms of ACE3-723 and ACE3-734 were ligated in an orderly manner into PacI/XbaI and SwaI sites of linearized LML2.1 [32] to form PlasmidA723 and PlasmidA734, respectively. The transformation experiments were performed using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation as described by Zhang et al. [32]. Correct intermediate transformants of A723 and A734, obtained by a homologous double exchange, were checked by diagnostic PCR [33] and quantitative PCR (qPCR Additional file 2) [34,35,36] to avoid unspecific locus integration (ectopic integration events). The primer pairs ace3-CF/D70-4 and HG3.6/ace3-CR were used in diagnostic PCR (Additional file 3: Figure S2A-B), which was followed by DNA sequencing (Additional file 3: Figure S2E) to confirm the correct knock-in at the ace3 locus in T. reesei genomes. The single-copy DNA fragment integration in transformed clones was verified by qPCR (Additional file 3: Figure S2C-D). The hygromycin marker gene in the transformants was excised using xylose-induced cre recombinase expression [32], and then the intermediate transformants were turned into the final transformants by excising the hygromycin marker gene. The final transformants were obtained and confirmed by hygromycin sensitive phenotype and with the second-round diagnostic PCR. Thus, the final A723/A734 transformants were used for further analysis.

Cellulase production in a shake flask and fermenter culture

Cellulase production in a shake flask was conducted according to a previously described method [26], with some modification. In brief, conidia (final concentration 10 6 /mL) of T. reesei strains were grown at 28 °C, in 20 mL of 2× Mandels’ medium containing 2% (w/v) lactose or 1% (w/v) Avicel (PH-101, Sigma-Aldrich) as the sole carbon source. The biomass dry weights were indirectly measured by calculating the total amount of intracellular proteins [37]. The supernatant was used for cellulase assays. Mycelia were collected for RNA extraction.

The activity of the produced cellulase was measured as described in another study [38]. In brief, the pNPCase and pNPGase activities were determined against 5 mM p-nitrophenol- d -cellobioside (pNPC, Sigma-Aldrich) and p-nitrophenyl β- d -glucopyranoside (pNPG, Sigma-Aldrich) as substrates in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer at pH 5.0 at 50 °C for 30 min, respectively. The release of p-nitrophenol was determined by measuring absorbance at 405 nm. One unit of pNPCase and pNPGase activities was defined as 1 μmol of p-nitrophenol released per minute. The CMCase activities were determined by incubation in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer with 1% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, Sigma-Aldrich), at pH 5.0, 50 °C and for 30 min. The FPase activities were determined using Whatman filter paper as the substrate with a 50 mM sodium acetate buffer at pH 5.0, 50 °C, and for 30 min. One unit of CMCase or FPase activity was defined as the amount of enzyme producing 1 μmol of reducing sugar per min.

Cellulase production in a fermenter culture was conducted according to the method described by Li et al. [39] with some modification. In brief, fermentation was carried out in the 30-L fermenter (Shanghai Bailun Bio-technology Co., Ltd.) with an initial working volume of 10 L at 28 °C for mycelial growth. Seed cultivation was performed as follows: for each strain, about 10 9 conidia were inoculated into 1 L of 2× Mandels’ medium and 20 g/L of glucose, then cultivated by rotation (200 rpm) at 28 °C for 2 days. This culture was poured into 9 L of fresh 2× Mandels’ medium containing 10 g/L of wheat bran and 15 g/L of Avicel in a 30 L jar fermenter. A mixture of glucose and β-disaccharides (MGDS SUNSON ® , Beijing, China) was fed after inoculation. The feeding took place every 6 h, which maintained glucose concentration low, between 0.05 g/L and 0.30 g/L. The temperature was decreased to 25 °C after 48 h for more efficient cellulase production. The dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH were controlled as described by Li et al. [39]. The samples were taken every 24 h, and the supernatant was analyzed for the FPase, pNPCase, pNPGase, and CMCase activities. Mycelia were collected for biomass measurement.

RNA extraction and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)

The methods used for RNA extraction and RT-qPCR methods are as those described by Chen et al. [33]. In brief, total RNA was extracted from cell fresh weight using a FastRNA Pro Red Kit (MPbio, Irvine, CA, USA). Synthesis of cDNA from total RNA was performed using the TransScript One-Step gDNA Removal and cDNA Synthesis SuperMix (TransGen, Shanghai, China), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. For RT-qPCR, the PerfectStart™ Green qPCR SuperMix (TransGen, Shanghai, China) was used (see Additional file 8: Table S1). The transcriptional levels of the sar1 gene and the RNA of the parental strain were measured for reference calculation and data normalization. Primers used in RT-qPCR are listed in Additional file 8: Table S2.

Pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose biomass

Dry dilute acid pretreated and bio-detoxified corn stover (containing 37.6% cellulose and 4.4% hemicellulose) was donated by Professor Jie Bao [40]. The hydrolysis efficiency of the crude cellulase was evaluated by mixing 5% (w/v) dry pretreated and bio-detoxified corn stover as a substrate and the same amount of crude enzyme (5 mL) in 50 mM phosphate buffer to a final volume of 20 mL at 50 °C and pH 5.0 for 72 h. The glucose concentration in the supernatant was determined using a glucose assay kit and glucose yield was analyzed as described by Li et al. [39]. In brief, the glucose concentration in the supernatant was measured with the GOD (glucose oxidase) method. The glucose yield was calculated as follows: Glucose yield (%) = (Glucose (g) × 0.9 × 100)/(Cellulose in substrate (g)).

Statistical analysis

All experiments were performed with at least three independent samples with identical or similar results. The error bars indicate standard deviation (SD) of the mean of triplicates. Student’s t test was used to compare two samples, and Duncan’s multiple-range test was used for multiple comparisons. Within each set of experiments, p < 0.05 was considered significant.

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