British Soldier in Sant' Angelo

British Soldier in Sant' Angelo

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British Soldier in Sant' Angelo

Here we see a British soldier watching out for any remaining German snipers in Sant' Angelo, on the west bank of the Gari/ Rapido River, soon after it fell to the British during the Fourth battle of Cassino.

Fort St Angelo

Fort St. Angelo has been described as ‘the jewel in the crown of Malta’s rich military heritage’ and sits, throne-like at the promontory of the town of Città Vittoriosa, better known locally as Birgu.

When the Knights of the Order of St John arrived in 1530, the fort became the seat of the Grand Master and after substantial remodelling over the next 30 years, it withstood a formidable Saracen advance during the 1565 Great Siege of Malta. Spanish military engineer Carlos de Grunenburgh remodelled the fort to include gun batteries he paid for himself and in 1912, the British moved in.

The naval HQ was (affectionately) re-named HMS St Angelo and it took direct hits during WWII but withstood all-comers. It was used as a base ship until as recently as 1979 until the British left.

Other add-ons have included D’Homedes Bastion, Ferramolino’s Cavalier and the De Guiral Battery.

An interesting fact about Fort St. Angelo is that when world-renowned Baroque artist Caravaggio was in Malta for the unveiling of his masterpiece The Beheading of St John the Baptist, he became involved in a brawl that ended with the wounding of an Italian Knight. He was imprisoned in the fort and is assumed to have escaped on one of the cargo ships that travelled between Malta and Sicily.

The fort’s underground tunnels doubled as Arya Stark’s playground in the Red Keep’s dungeons in Game of Thrones but unfortunately for visitors, the fort is currently undergoing a €13.4m restoration, conservation and re-use programme and is currently closed to the public.

Dunford reflects on World War I sacrifices

Posted On April 29, 2020 15:43:56

Military leaders must appreciate the changing character of war, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff said Nov. 11, 2018, as he returned home from Paris, where he was attending ceremonies marking the 100th anniversary of Armistice Day.

Marine Corps Gen. Joe Dunford reflected on the anniversary, which signaled 100 years since the end of World War I, on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month in 1918.

“I think one of the things with World War I is the character of war hadn’t changed in some time,” he said. We saw … our own experience in the Civil War — machine guns, concertina wire, railroads, communications, and so forth. And I think even 50 years later, it’s pretty clear that leaders didn’t fully appreciate the changed character of war and the introduction of new technologies and how they’re going to change war.”

The general described that costs of subsequent wars has “an enduring lesson for all of us, [and] that one of our responsibilities as a leader is to appreciate the changing character of war, and ensure that we anticipate the changes and the implications of those changes.”

Alliances and partnerships

Dunford said the fact that the United States fought alongside allied countries for the first time during World War I resonates even today, as one of three lines of effort within the 2018 National Defense Strategy involves the nation furthering its alliances and partnerships with other nations.

Marine Corps Gen. Joe Dunford, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and his wife, Ellyn, visit the chapel at the Aisne-Marne American Cemetery and Memorial near the Belleau Wood battleground, in Belleau, France, Nov. 10, 2018.

(Navy Petty Officer 1st Class Dominique A. Pineiro)

“If you look back at the 20th century, [in] every conflict we were involved in, we participated as part of a coalition, participated with allies and partners on our side: World War I, World War II, the Korean War, Vietnam War, and the main skirmishes that we had in between,” he emphasized. “And … the NDS recognizes that we certainly don’t anticipate being on any future battlefield without allies and partners.”

During his two-and-a-half days in Paris, the chairman participated in the 100th Armistice Day commemoration at the Arc de Triomphe with President Donald J. Trump, French President Emmanuel Macron, and some 80 other heads of state.

He also attended ceremonies at World War I gravesites of U.S. servicemen at Aisne-Marne American Cemetery near the site of the Battle of Belleau Wood in Belleau, France and Suresnes American Cemetery outside Paris.


Dunford noted some key leaders of World War I, but emphasized, “For me, World War I is less about an individual leader and more about the individual doughboy. Many of them, [at] 17, 18, 19, 20 years old left home for the first time [and] in many cases came from rural America and never had seen anything outside of their hometown before they found themselves on the battlefields of France. And so what I’ve been mindful of all weekend … [is] just the young faces for every young doughboy lost in France.”

EUCOM Joint Color Guard carry the colors at Suresnes American Cemetery to honor the centennial of Armistice Day, Paris, France, Nov. 11, 2018.

Dunford found his tour of Belleau Wood on Nov. 10, 2018 – also the Marine Corps 243rd birthday – to be a solemn experience. Before touring the gravesites, he and White House Chief of Staff John Kelly laid a wreath in front of the chapel at Aisne-Marne cemetery, where the names of 1,060 U.S. service members, whose remains never were found, are etched in stone, high on the chapel’s interior walls.

At the hallowed grounds of the American cemetery and the adjoining World War I battlefield – where the Marine Corps played a key role in securing Allied victory and earned distinction for their tenacity during the battle – the chairman said he was moved by the profound loss that takes place in combat: The human toll.

‘Powerful’ commemoration

At the 100th Armistice Day commemoration at Paris’ Arc de Triomphe, Nov. 11, 2018, Dunford said he was struck by the number of leaders who all came together to replicate what took place when the deadly war came to an end.

“It was very powerful to see them all there … and to have them representing their countries and frankly, I think in many ways making a commitment never to repeat the mistakes that led us into World War I,” the chairman reflected. “I think it was a reminder probably for all of us, and certainly those senior leaders in uniform, of the responsibility that we have to avoid the mistakes of the past.”

This article originally appeared on the United States Department of Defense. Follow @DeptofDefense on Twitter.

More on We are the Mighty



Caracalla's name at birth was Lucius Septimius Bassianus. He was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus at the age of seven as part of his father's attempt at union with the families of Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. [3] [4] [1] According to the 4th century historian Aurelius Victor in his Epitome de Caesaribus, he became known by the agnomen "Caracalla" after a Gallic hooded tunic that he habitually wore and made fashionable. [5] He may have begun wearing it during his campaigns on the Rhine and Danube. [6] Dio generally referred to him as Tarautas, after a famously diminutive and violent gladiator of the time. [7]

Caracalla was born in Lugdunum, Gaul (now Lyon, France), on 4 April 188 to Septimius Severus ( r . 193–211 ) and Julia Domna, thus giving him Punic paternal ancestry and Arab maternal ancestry. [8] He had a slightly younger brother, Geta, with whom Caracalla briefly ruled as co-emperor. [3] [9] Caracalla was five years old when his father was acclaimed augustus on 9 April 193. [10]


In early 195, Caracalla's father Septimius Severus had himself adopted posthumously by the deified emperor (divus) Marcus Aurelius ( r . 161–180 ) accordingly, in 195 or 196 Carcalla was given the imperial rank of caesar, adopting the name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Caesar, and was pronounced Latin: imperator destinatus (or designatus) in 197, possibly on his birthday, 4 April, and certainly before 7 May. [10] He thus became part of the well-remembered Antonine dynasty. [11]


Caracalla's father appointed Caracalla joint augustus and full emperor from 28 January 198. [12] [13] This was the day of Septimius Severus's triumph was celebrated, in honour of his victory over the Parthian Empire in the Roman–Persian Wars he had successfully sacked the Parthian capital, Ctesiphon, after winning the Battle of Ctesiphon, probably in October 197. [14] He was also awarded tribunician power and the title of imperator. [10] In inscriptions, Caracalla is given from 198 the title of the chief priesthood, pontifex maximus. [11] [10] His brother Geta was proclaimed nobilissimus caesar on the same day, and their father Septimius Severus was awarded the victory name Parthicus Maximus. [10]

In 199 he was inducted into the Arval Brethren. [11] By the end of 199, he was entitled pater patriae. [11] In 202 he was Roman consul, having been named consul designatus the previous year. [11] His colleague was his father, serving his own third consulship. [14]

In 202 Caracalla was forced to marry the daughter of Gaius Fulvius Plautianus, Fulvia Plautilla, a woman whom he hated, though for what reason is unknown. [15] The wedding took place between the 9 and the 15 April. [11]

In 205 Caracalla was consul for the second time, in company with Geta – his brother's first consulship. [11] By 205 Caracalla had got Plautianus executed for treason, though he had probably fabricated the evidence of the plot. [15] It was then that he banished his wife, whose later killing might have been carried out under Caracalla's orders. [3] [15]

On 28 January 207, Caracalla celebrated his decennalia, the tenth anniversary of the beginning of his reign. [11] 208 was the year of his third and Geta's second consulship. [11] Geta was himself granted the rank of augustus and tribunician powers in September or October 209. [11] [16] [10]

During the reign of his father, Caracalla's mother Julia Domna had played a prominent public role, receiving titles of honour such as "Mother of the camp", but she also played a role behind the scenes helping Septimius administer the empire. [17] Described as ambitious, [18] Julia Domna surrounded herself with thinkers and writers from all over the empire. [19] While Caracalla was mustering and training troops for his planned Persian invasion, Julia remained in Rome, administering the empire. Julia's growing influence in state affairs was the beginning of a trend of emperors' mothers having influence, which continued throughout the Severan dynasty. [20]

On 4 February 211, Septimius Severus died, leaving his two sons and co-augusti to rule the empire. On the death of his father, Caracalla adopted his father's cognomen, Severus, and assumed the chief priesthood as pontifex maximus. [11] His name became Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Pius Augustus. [11]

Geta as co-augustus

Septimius Severus had died at Eboracum (present day York, England) while on campaign in Caledonia, to the north of Roman Britain. [21] Caracalla and his brother, Geta, jointly inherited the throne upon their father's death. [16] [21] Caracalla and Geta ended the Roman invasion of Caledonia 208–210 after concluding a peace with the Caledonians that returned the border of Roman Britain to the line demarcated by Hadrian's Wall. [16] [22]

During the journey back to Rome with their father's ashes, Caracalla and his brother continuously argued with one another, making relations between them increasingly hostile. [16] [22] Caracalla and Geta considered dividing the empire in half along the Bosphorus to make their co-rule less hostile. Caracalla was to rule in the west and Geta was to rule in the east. They were persuaded not to do this by their mother. [22]

Geta's murder

On 26 December 211, at a reconciliation meeting arranged by their mother, Geta was assassinated by members of the Praetorian Guard loyal to Caracalla. Geta died in his mother's arms. It is widely accepted, and clearly most likely, that Caracalla ordered the assassination himself, as the two had never been on favourable terms with one another, much less after succeeding their father. [21]

Caracalla then persecuted and executed most of Geta's supporters and ordered a damnatio memoriae pronounced by the Senate against his brother's memory. [5] [23] Geta's image was removed from all paintings, coins were melted down, statues were destroyed, his name was struck from papyrus records, and it became a capital offence to speak or write Geta's name. [24] In the aftermath of the damnatio memoriae, an estimated 20,000 people were massacred. [23] [24] Those killed were Geta's inner circle of guards and advisers, friends, and other military staff under his employ. [23]

Alamannic war

In 213, about a year after Geta's death, Caracalla left Rome, never to return. [25] He went north to the German frontier to deal with the Alamanni, a confederation of Germanic tribes who had broken through the limes in Raetia. [25] [26] During the campaign of 213–214, Caracalla successfully defeated some of the Germanic tribes while settling other difficulties through diplomacy, though precisely with whom these treaties were made remains unknown. [26] [27] While there, Caracalla strengthened the frontier fortifications of Raetia and Germania Superior, collectively known as the Agri Decumates, so that it was able to withstand any further barbarian invasions for another twenty years.

When Geta died in 211, Julia Domna's responsibilities increased, because Caracalla found administrative tasks to be mundane. [17] She may have taken on one of the more important civil functions of the emperor receiving petitions and answering correspondence. [28] The extent of her role in this position, however, is probably overstated. She may have represented her son and played a role in meetings and answering queries however, the final authority on legal matters was Caracalla. [28] The emperor filled all of the roles in the legal system as judge, legislator, and administrator. [28]

Provincial tour

In spring 214, Caracalla departed for the eastern provinces, travelling through the Danubian provinces and arriving in Asia and Bithynia. [11] The winter of 214/215 he spent at Nicomedia. Before 4 April 214 he had left Nicomedia, and in the summer he was at Antioch on the Orontes. [11] From December 215 he was at Alexandria in the Nile Delta, where he stayed until March or April 216. [11]

When the inhabitants of Alexandria heard of Caracalla's claims that he had killed his brother Geta in self-defence, they produced a satire mocking this as well as Caracalla's other pretensions. [29] [30] In 215 Caracalla travelled to Alexandria and responded to this insult by slaughtering the deputation of leading citizens who had unsuspectingly assembled before the city to greet his arrival, before setting his troops against Alexandria for several days of looting and plunder. [25] [31]

In spring 216 he arrived again at Antioch and before 27 May had set out for his Persian War. [11] For the winter of 215/216 he was at Edessa. [11] Caracalla moved east into Armenia. By 216 he had pushed through Armenia and south into Parthia. [32]


Construction on the Baths of Caracalla began in 211 at the start of Caracalla's rule. The thermae are named for Caracalla, though it is most probable that his father was responsible for their planning. In 216 a partial inauguration of the baths took place, but the outer perimeter of the baths was not completed until the reign of Severus Alexander. [33]

These large baths were typical of the Roman practice of building complexes for social and state activities in large densely populated cities. [33] The baths covered around 50 acres (or 202,000 square metres) of land and could accommodate around 1,600 bathers at any one time. [33] They were the second largest public baths built in ancient Rome and were complete with swimming pools, exercise yards, a stadium, steam rooms, libraries, meeting rooms, fountains, and other amenities, all of which were enclosed within formal gardens. [33] [34] The interior spaces were decorated with colourful marble floors, columns, mosaics, and colossal statuary. [35]

Caracalla and Serapis

At the outset of his reign, Caracalla declared divine support for Serapis – god of healing. The Iseum et Serapeum in Alexandria was apparently renovated during Caracalla's co-rule with his father Septimius Severus. The evidence for this exists in two inscriptions found near the temple that appear to bear their names. Additional archaeological evidence exists for this in the form of two papyri that have been dated to the Severan period and also two statues associated with the temple that have been dated to around 200 AD. Upon Caracalla's ascension to being sole ruler in 212, the imperial mint began striking coins bearing Serapis' image. This was a reflection of the god's central role during Caracalla's reign. After Geta's death, the weapon that had killed him was dedicated to Serapis by Caracalla. This was most likely done to cast Serapis into the role of Caracalla's protector from treachery. [36]

Caracalla also erected a temple on the Quirinal Hill in 212, which he dedicated to Serapis. [31] A fragmented inscription found in the church of Sant' Agata dei Goti in Rome records the construction, or possibly restoration, of a temple dedicated to the god Serapis. The inscription bears the name "Marcus Aurelius Antoninus", a reference to either Caracalla or Elagabalus, but more likely to Caracalla due to his known strong association with the god. Two other inscriptions dedicated to Serapis, as well as a granite crocodile similar to one discovered at the Iseum et Serapeum, were also found in the area around the Quirinal Hill. [37]

Constitutio Antoniniana

The Constitutio Antoniniana (lit. "Constitution of Antoninus", also called "Edict of Caracalla" or "Antonine Constitution") was an edict issued in 212 by Caracalla declaring that all free men in the Roman Empire were to be given full Roman citizenship, [38] with the exception of the dediticii, people who had become subject to Rome through surrender in war, and freed slaves. [39] [40] [41] [42] [43]

Before 212 the majority of Roman citizens had been inhabitants of Roman Italia, with about 4–7% of all peoples in the Roman Empire being Roman citizens at the time of the death of Augustus in 14 AD. Outside Rome, citizenship was restricted to Roman coloniae [a] – Romans, or their descendants, living in the provinces, the inhabitants of various cities throughout the Empire – and small numbers of local nobles such as kings of client countries. Provincials, on the other hand, were usually non-citizens, although some magistrates and their families and relatives held the Latin Right. [b] [47]

Dio maintains that one purpose for Caracalla issuing the edict was the desire to increase state revenue at the time, Rome was in a difficult financial situation and needed to pay for the new pay raises and benefits that were being conferred on the military. [48] The edict widened the obligation for public service and gave increased revenue through the inheritance and emancipation taxes that only had to be paid by Roman citizens. [25] However, few of those that gained citizenship were wealthy, and while it is true that Rome was in a difficult financial situation, it is thought that this could not have been the sole purpose of the edict. [48] The provincials also benefited from this edict because they were now able to think of themselves as equal partners to the Romans in the empire. [25]

Another purpose for issuing the edict, as described within the papyrus upon which part of the edict was inscribed, was to appease the gods who had delivered Caracalla from conspiracy. [49] The conspiracy in question was in response to Caracalla's murder of Geta and the subsequent slaughter of his followers fratricide would only have been condoned if his brother had been a tyrant. [50] The damnatio memoriae against Geta and the large payments Caracalla had made to his own supporters were designed to protect himself from possible repercussions. After this had succeeded, Caracalla felt the need to repay the gods of Rome by returning the favour to the people of Rome through a similarly grand gesture. This was done through the granting of citizenship. [50] [51]

Another purpose for issuing the edict might have been related to the fact that the periphery of the empire was now becoming central to its existence, and the granting of citizenship may have been simply a logical outcome of Rome's continued expansion of citizenship rights. [51] [52]

Monetary policy

The expenditures that Caracalla made with the large bonuses he gave to soldiers prompted him to debase the coinage soon after his ascension. [5] At the end of Severus' reign, and early into Caracalla's, the Roman denarius had an approximate silver purity of around 55%, but by the end of Caracalla's reign the purity had been reduced to about 51%. [53] [54]

In 215 Caracalla introduced the antoninianus, a coin intended to serve as a double denarius. [55] This new currency, however, had a silver purity of about 52% for the period between 215 and 217 and an actual size ratio of 1 antoninianus to 1.5 denarii. This in effect made the antoninianus equal to about 1.5 denarii. [56] [57] [58] The reduced silver purity of the coins caused people to hoard the old coins that had higher silver content, aggravating the inflation problem caused by the earlier devaluation of the denarii. [55] [56]

Military policy

During his reign as emperor, Caracalla raised the annual pay of an average legionary from 2000 sesterces (500 denarii) to 2700–3000 sesterces (675–750 denarii). He lavished many benefits on the army, which he both feared and admired, in accordance with the advice given by his father on his deathbed always to heed the welfare of the soldiers and ignore everyone else. [16] [26] Caracalla needed to gain and keep the trust of the military, and he did so with generous pay raises and popular gestures. [59] He spent much of his time with the soldiers, so much so that he began to imitate their dress and adopt their manners. [5] [60] [61]

After Caracalla concluded his campaign against the Alamanni, it became evident that he was inordinately preoccupied with the Greek-Macedonian general and conqueror Alexander the Great. [62] [63] He began openly mimicking Alexander in his personal style. In planning his invasion of the Parthian Empire, Caracalla decided to arrange 16,000 of his men in Macedonian-style phalanxes, despite the Roman army having made the phalanx an obsolete tactical formation. [62] [63] [64] The historian Christopher Matthew mentions that the term Phalangarii has two possible meanings, both with military connotations. The first refers merely to the Roman battle line and does not specifically mean that the men were armed with pikes, and the second bears similarity to the 'Marian Mules' of the late Roman Republic who carried their equipment suspended from a long pole, which were in use until at least the 2nd century AD. [64] As a consequence, the Phalangarii of Legio II Parthica may not have been pikemen, but rather standard battle line troops or possibly Triarii. [64]

Caracalla's mania for Alexander went so far that Caracalla visited Alexandria while preparing for his Persian invasion and persecuted philosophers of the Aristotelian school based on a legend that Aristotle had poisoned Alexander. This was a sign of Caracalla's increasingly erratic behaviour. But this mania for Alexander, strange as it was, was overshadowed by subsequent events in Alexandria. [63]

Parthian war

In 216 Caracalla pursued a series of aggressive campaigns in the east against the Parthians, intended to bring more territory under direct Roman control. He offered the king of Parthia, Artabanus V of Parthia, a marriage proposal between himself and the king's daughter. [6] [65] Artabanus refused the offer, realizing that the proposal was merely an attempt to unite the kingdom of Parthia under the control of Rome. [65] In response, Caracalla used the opportunity to start a campaign against the Parthians. That summer Caracalla began to attack the countryside east of the Tigris in the Parthian war of Caracalla. [65] In the following winter, Caracalla retired to Edessa, modern Şanlıurfa in south-east Turkey, and began making preparations to renew the campaign by spring. [65]

At the beginning of 217, Caracalla was still based at Edessa prior to renewing hostilities against Parthia. [6] On 8 April 217 Caracalla was travelling to visit a temple near Carrhae, now Harran in southern Turkey, where in 53 BC the Romans had suffered a defeat at the hands of the Parthians. [6] After stopping briefly to urinate, Caracalla was approached by a soldier, Justin Martialis, and stabbed to death. [6] Martialis had been incensed by Caracalla's refusal to grant him the position of centurion, and the praetorian prefect Macrinus, Caracalla's successor, saw the opportunity to use Martialis to end Caracalla's reign. [65] In the immediate aftermath of Caracalla's death, his murderer, Martialis, was killed as well. [6] When Caracalla was murdered, Julia was in Antioch sorting out correspondence, removing unimportant messages from the bunch so that when Caracalla returned, he would not be overburdened with duties. [17] Three days later, Macrinus declared himself emperor with the support of the Roman army. [66] [67]

Caracalla's official portrayal as sole emperor marks a break from the detached images of the philosopher-emperors who preceded him: his close-cropped haircut is that of a soldier, his pugnacious scowl a realistic and threatening presence. This rugged soldier-emperor, an iconic archetype, was adopted by most of the following emperors, such as Maximinus Thrax, who were dependent on the support of the troops to rule the empire. [68] [69]

Herodian describes Caracalla as having preferred northern European clothing, Caracalla being the name of the short Gaulish cloak that he made fashionable, and he often wore a blond wig. [70] Dio mentions that when Caracalla was a boy, he had a tendency to show an angry or even savage facial expression. [71]

The way Caracalla wanted to be portrayed to his people can be seen through the many surviving busts and coins. Images of the young Caracalla cannot be clearly distinguished from his younger brother Geta. [72] On the coins, Caracalla was shown laureate after becoming augustus in 197 Geta is bareheaded until he became augustus himself in 209. [73] Between 209 and their father's death in February 211, both brothers are shown as mature young men who were ready to take over the empire.

Between the death of the father and the assassination of Geta towards the end of 211, Caracalla's portrait remains static with a short full beard while Geta develops a long beard with hair strains like his father. The latter was a strong indicator of Geta's effort to be seen as the true successor to their father, an effort that came to naught when he was murdered. [73] Caracalla's presentation on coins during the period of his co-reign with his father, from 198 to 210, are in broad terms in line with the third-century imperial representation most coin types communicate military and religious messages, with other coins giving messages of saeculum aureum and virtues. [74]

During Caracalla's sole reign, from 212 to 217, a significant shift in representation took place. The majority of coins produced during this period made associations with divinity or had religious messages others had non-specific and unique messages that were only circulated during Caracalla's sole rule. [75]

Damnatio memoriae

Caracalla was not subject to a proper damnatio memoriae after his assassination while the Senate disliked him, his popularity with the military prevented Macrinus and the Senate from openly declaring him to be a hostis. Macrinus, in an effort to placate the Senate, instead ordered the secret removal of statues of Caracalla from public view. After his death, the public made comparisons between him and other condemned emperors and called for the horse race celebrating his birthday to be abolished and for gold and silver statues dedicated to him to be melted down. These events were, however, limited in scope most erasures of his name from inscriptions were either accidental or occurred as a result of re-use. Macrinus had Caracalla deified and commemorated on coins as Divus Antoninus. There does not appear to have been any intentional mutilation of Caracalla in any images that were created during his reign as sole emperor. [76]

Classical portrayal

Caracalla is presented in the ancient sources of Dio, Herodian, and the Historia Augusta as a cruel tyrant and savage ruler. [78] This portrayal of Caracalla is only further supported by the murder of his brother Geta and the subsequent massacre of Geta's supporters that Caracalla ordered. [78] Alongside this, these contemporary sources present Caracalla as a "soldier-emperor" for his preference of the soldiery over the senators, a depiction that made him even less popular with the senatorial biographers. [78] Dio explicitly presented Caracalla as an emperor who marched with the soldiers and behaved like a soldier. Dio also often referred to Caracalla's large military expenditures and the subsequent financial problems this caused. [78] These traits dominate Caracalla's image in the surviving classical literature. [79] The Baths of Caracalla are presented in classical literature as unprecedented in scale, and impossible to build if not for the use of reinforced concrete. [80] The Edict of Caracalla, issued in 212, however, goes almost unnoticed in classical records. [79]

The Historia Augusta is considered by historians as the least trustworthy for all accounts of events, historiography, and biographies among the ancient works and is full of fabricated materials and sources. [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] The works of Herodian of Antioch are, by comparison, "far less fantastic" than the stories presented by the Historia Augusta. [81] Historian Andrew G. Scott suggests that Dio's work is frequently considered the best source for this period. [86] However, historian Clare Rowan questions Dio's accuracy on the topic of Caracalla, referring to the work as having presented a hostile attitude towards Caracalla and thus needing to be treated with caution. [87] An example of this hostility is found in one section where Dio notes that Caracalla is descended from three different races and that he managed to combine all of their faults into one person: the fickleness, cowardice, and recklessness of the Gauls, the cruelty and harshness of the Africans, and the craftiness that is associated with the Syrians. [87] Despite this, the outline of events as presented by Dio are described by Rowan as generally accurate, while the motivations that Dio suggests are of questionable origin. [87] An example of this is his presentation of the Edict of Caracalla the motive that Dio appends to this event is Caracalla's desire to increase tax revenue. Olivier Hekster, Nicholas Zair, and Rowan challenge this presentation because the majority of people who were enfranchised by the edict would have been poor. [48] [87] In her work, Rowan also describes Herodian's depiction of Caracalla: more akin to a soldier than an emperor. [88]

Medieval legends

Geoffrey of Monmouth's pseudohistorical History of the Kings of Britain makes Caracalla a king of Britain, referring to him by his actual name "Bassianus", rather than by the nickname Caracalla. In the story, after Severus' death the Romans wanted to make Geta king of Britain, but the Britons preferred Bassianus because he had a British mother. The two brothers fought until Geta was killed and Bassianus succeeded to the throne, after which he ruled until he was overthrown and killed by Carausius. However, Carausius' revolt actually happened about seventy years after Caracalla's death in 217. [89]

Eighteenth-century artworks and the French Revolution

Caracalla's memory was revived in the art of late eighteenth-century French painters. His tyrannical career became the subject of the work of several French painters such as Greuze, Julien de Parme, David, Bonvoisin, J.-A.-C. Pajou, and Lethière. Their fascination with Caracalla was a reflection of the growing discontent of the French people with the monarchy. Caracalla's visibility was influenced by the existence of several literary sources in French that included both translations of ancient works and contemporary works of the time. Caracalla's likeness was readily available to the painters due to the distinct style of his portraiture and his unusual soldier-like choice of fashion that distinguished him from other emperors. The artworks may have served as a warning that absolute monarchy could become the horror of tyranny and that disaster could come about if the regime failed to reform. Art historian Susan Wood suggests that this reform was for the absolute monarchy to become a constitutional monarchy, as per the original goal of revolution, rather than the republic that it eventually became. Wood also notes the similarity between Caracalla and his crimes leading to his assassination and the eventual uprising against, and death of, King Louis XVI: both rulers had died as a result of their apparent tyranny. [90]

Modern portrayal

Caracalla has had a reputation as being among the worst of Roman emperors, a perception that survives even into modern works. [91] The art and linguistics historian John Agnew and the writer Walter Bidwell describe Caracalla as having an evil spirit, referring to the devastation he wrought in Alexandria. [92] The Roman historian David Magie describes Caracalla, in the book Roman Rule in Asia Minor, as brutal and tyrannical and points towards psychopathy as an explanation for his behaviour. [93] [94] The historian Clifford Ando supports this description, suggesting that Caracalla's rule as sole emperor is notable "almost exclusively" for his crimes of theft, massacre, and mismanagement. [95]

18th-century historian Edward Gibbon, author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, takes Caracalla's reputation, which he had received for the murder of Geta and subsequent massacre of Geta's supporters, and applied it to Caracalla's provincial tours, suggesting that "every province was by turn the scene of his rapine and cruelty". [91] Gibbon compared Caracalla to emperors such as Hadrian who spent their careers campaigning in the provinces and then to tyrants such as Nero and Domitian whose entire reigns were confined to Rome and whose actions only impacted upon the senatorial and equestrian classes residing there. Gibbon then concluded that Caracalla was "the common enemy of mankind", as both Romans and provincials alike were subject to "his rapine and cruelty". [25]

This representation is questioned by the historian Shamus Sillar, who cites the construction of roads and reinforcement of fortifications in the western provinces, among other things, as being contradictory to the representation made by Gibbon of cruelty and destruction. [96] The history professors Molefi Asante and Shaza Ismail note that Caracalla is known for the disgraceful nature of his rule, stating that "he rode the horse of power until it nearly died of exhaustion" and that though his rule was short, his life, personality, and acts made him a notable, though likely not beneficial, figure in the Roman Empire. [97]

The Alcázar of Segovia is a stone fortification, located in the old part of the city. It’s one of the most distinctive castles in Spain by the virtue of its shape – like the bow of a ship.

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Architecture & Design was started by an Afghan entrepreneur, he believes that wellbeing is affected by the spaces we spend our time in and that their design is an important notion to consider with regards to our personal comfort and happiness – whether we are at home, at work or at play.

India Gate

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India Gate, official name Delhi Memorial, originally called All-India War Memorial, monumental sandstone arch in New Delhi, dedicated to the troops of British India who died in wars fought between 1914 and 1919. India Gate, which is located at the eastern end of the Rajpath (formerly called the Kingsway), is about 138 feet (42 metres) in height.

India Gate is one of many British monuments built by order of the Imperial War Graves Commission (later renamed Commonwealth War Graves Commission). The architect was Sir Edwin Lutyens, an Englishman who designed numerous other war memorials and was also the principal planner of New Delhi. The cornerstone was laid in 1921 by the duke of Connaught, third son of Queen Victoria. Construction of the All-India War Memorial, as it was originally known, continued until 1931, the year of the formal dedication of New Delhi as the capital of India.

Lutyens declined to incorporate pointed arches or other Asian motifs in his design but strove instead for classical simplicity. The result is often described as similar in appearance to the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. On the rooftop above the archway is a broad shallow domed bowl that was intended to be filled with flaming oil on ceremonial occasions. No fires have been set on the rooftop in recent years, but four eternal flames are now sheltered at the base of the structure. The flames demarcate the Amar Jawan Jyoti, a small monument that has served as India’s tomb of the unknown soldier since 1971.

Inscribed above the archway, in English, is the following dedication:


To the dead of the Indian armies who fell and are honoured

in France and Flanders, Mesopotamia and Persia, East Africa, Gallipoli and elsewhere

in the Near and the Far East and in sacred memory also of those whose names are here

recorded and who fell in India on the north west frontier and during the Third Afghan War.

Most of the place-names in the dedication were theatres of operation in World War I, but the Third Anglo-Afghan War is also singled out. The names of individual Indian soldiers—more than 13,000 of them, according to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission—are inscribed in smaller letters on the monument.

A gold color metal and enamel device 1 5/32 inches (2.94 cm) in height consisting of a shield blazoned: Azure a polar bear statant on an ice cake Argent: on a canton Or a fess Sable between three martlets of the like two and one. Attached below and to the sides a Gold scroll inscribed "Штыкъ рѣшаетъ" in Blue letters.

The polar bear on its blue background is copied from the unofficial shoulder patch of the North Russian Expeditionary Force, of which this Regiment was a part during the years 1918-1919. The Regiment, organized in 1917, was made up to a large extent of men from Detroit, and was known locally as "Detroit's Own." The canton bears a part of the coat of arms of Cadillac, the founder of Detroit, and is symbolic of the origin of the Regiment and of its 1924 allocation. The motto is pronounced as though spelled in English "shtyk reshayet" (Russian pronunciation:  [ˈʂtɨk rʲɪˈʂajɪt] ). Literally translated it is "The bayonet settles it," freely translated it may be rendered "We Finish With The Bayonet."

The distinctive unit insignia was originally approved for the 339th Infantry Regiment on 9 June 1924. It was redesignated for the 339th Regiment and amended to include the motto on 5 August 1960.

Prison in Fort Saint Angelo

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One of Malta ’s most well-known landmarks, Fort Saint Angelo, was fortified in 1530, when the Order of Saint John came to the island. The original structure, which was crumbling, was rebuilt and became the residence of the head of the Catholic military order, as well as the organization’s headquarters.

The massive fort has several rooms that reflect its crucial role in Maltese history, especially during the Great Siege, which took place a few decades after its construction. But beneath the fort itself lies a prison which was greatly feared and housed many high-ranking offenders within the order. It was rediscovered by the British in 1913.

The guva, or oubliette, was chiseled out of stone underneath the fort and could only be accessed through a trapdoor in its ceiling. The oval-shaped prison is situated opposite the Chapel of Nativity. and was originally a water cistern. Soon, however, errant knights were locked up there to languish as punishment for various crimes. Shelves and niches were carved into the walls to hold candles or lamps.

One of the most notable prisoners who served some time in the guva was the infamous artist Caravaggio, who was confined there in the early 17th century before he escaped the fort and the island.

Scratched on the walls of this grim and often unnoticed oubliette are various designs and inscriptions, dating back to as early as 1532, almost immediately after the fort’s construction. A lot of the graffiti, which is written in different European languages including Latin, reflects the despair of those holed up in the underbelly of the vast fort.

A later inscription by a knight who was accused of stealing silver from the church and melting it down, reads:

“John James Sandilands // Imprisoned in this living grave // Where evil triumphs over good // To the satisfaction of my enemies // So much for friendship.”

Sandilands was later executed for his crime.

Another prominent inscription features the shield of a French knight, whose family escutcheon is a swan beneath a chevron, with a right and left star respectively and a rose. The names of Italian knights Leonardv, Brvnv, and Annibale Parucci are still seen, with the year 1573 carved underneath the inscriptions from the Bible.

The guva was most likely a temporary prison, holding convicts for brief periods. Although the oubliette is not accessible, there is a monitor which shows the 360 degree interior, as well as photographs of the graffiti and its history.

Know Before You Go

The fort is perched at the top of the peninsula. Ideally, you should reach the fort on foot, as the street leading to it is a two way street and often a car has to give way to the other.
Even though the oubliette cannot be accessed, there is a display room with photographs and a monitors which shows the interior.

The Kouroi of Kleobis and Biton

In one of his memorable anecdotes, the ancient Greek historian Herodotus recounts the events of a fateful day in the city-state of Argos (on the Peloponnesian Peninsula). A priestess of the goddess Hera found herself unable to get to an important religious festival because her oxen were still out plowing the fields, too busy to pull her and her cart to the temple. Improvising quickly, the woman’s two sons Kleobis and Biton strapped themselves to their mother’s cart and pulled her more than 5 miles to the sacred site. Everyone at the temple praised the young men, and their mother asked Hera to give her sons the best gift they could receive. That night, after the religious festivities, Kleobis and Biton went to sleep in the temple of Hera and died peacefully. Herodotus explains that death was the greatest gift the goddess could give them: they died in their prime, surrounded by the praise and love of their family and fellow citizens, who would honor their memory forever. At the end of this tale, Herodotus writes that “the Argives made and set up at Delphi images of them [Kleobis and Biton] because of their excellence.” [1] In the early 1890s, archaeologists believed they found these very images.

[Poly?]medes of Argos, kouroi of Kleobis and Biton, early 6th century B.C.E., found at the sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi, Greece (Delphi Archaeological Museum photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Recognizing Kleobis and Biton

Archaeologists excavating Kleobis, 1894

In 1893 and 1894 French archaeologists uncovered two extremely similar kouroi (statues of idealized nude male youths that functioned as grave markers or offerings to the gods) while excavating the sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi . At first glance, the pair appear to be typical examples of the kouros type. Like other kouroi, they were erected in a sanctuary, where they functioned as both commemorative monuments and gifts to the gods.

Left: Marble Statue of a Kouros (New York Kouros), c. 590–580 B.C.E. (Attic, archaic), Naxian marble, 194.6 x 51.6 cm (The Metropolitan Museum of Art photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) right: [Poly?]medes of Argos, kouroi of Kleobis and Biton, early 6th century B.C.E., found at the sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi, Greece (Delphi Archaeological Museum photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

[Poly?]medes of Argos, kouros of Biton, early 6th century B.C.E., found at the sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi, Greece (Delphi Archaeological Museum photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

[Poly?]medes of Argos, kouroi of Kleobis and Biton (Delphi Archaeological Museum photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

[Poly?]medes of Argos, kouroi of Kleobis and Biton, early 6th century B.C.E., found at the sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi, Greece (Delphi Archaeological Museum photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Decoding Inscriptions

All of these visual indicators suggest that the pair of kouroi from Delphi represent Kleobis and Biton. However, like other kouroi, the statues are so idealized that they probably do not closely resemble the people they represent. Rather than being honored with realistic portraits, men who were commemorated with kouroi forever projected a perfectly idealized image to those who walked by their monuments.

Anavysos Kouros, c. 530 B.C.E., marble, 6′ 4″ (National Archaeological Museum, Athens photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Generally, the man honored by a kouros was not identifiable by the statue itself, but by an inscription that accompanied the statue on its base. As a result, only kouroi that are found with their inscribed bases in modern excavations can be identified with any certainty. This is the case with the Anavysos Kouros , the base of which tells us that the statue was dedicated for a soldier named Kroisos.

[Poly?]medes of Argos, kouroi of Kleobis and Biton, early 6th century B.C.E., found at the sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi, Greece (Delphi Archaeological Museum photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

However, the re-identification of the kouroi as Castor and Pollux rather than Kleobis and Biton has been discouraged by recent scientific analysis of the surviving inscriptions. This study has shown that only a few words on one of the plinths are preserved well enough to be read with any certainty. [4] The text does not indicate that the kouroi represent Castor and Pollux, but instead tells us the name of the artist who made them. Translated into English, the words mean “[Poly?]medes the Argive made it.” While the artist’s name is partially lost, he is described as Argive, which seems to further support an identification of these two kouroi as the Argive brothers Kleobis and Biton. Even so, the extreme idealization of this pair of kouroi makes them appear to be almost super-human, and their original viewers may have also been reminded of the divine Dioscuri when they looked at these images. [5]

Temple of Apollo (with reconstructed columns), Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi, Greece (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Preserving Memories with Images

In the midst of the sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, which was believed to be the center of the ancient Greek world, and was visited by pilgrims from hundreds of miles away, the kouroi of Kleobis and Biton drew attention to themselves. Standing more than 6’ tall, these statues had a commanding presence that would encourage passersby to stop and look at their images. These ancient visitors may have read the inscriptions on the statues’ plinths to learn their story. Having died as heroes in their youth, Kleobis and Biton achieved a sort of immortality through these images. By erecting this pair of kouroi in the sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, the Argive people made the memory of Kleobis and Biton permanent, ensuring that visitors to Delphi would forever be impressed by the brothers’ excellence.

Poly?]medes of Argos, kouroi of Kleobis and Biton, early 6th century B.C.E., found at the sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi, Greece (Delphi Archaeological Museum photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

[1] Herodotus, Persian Wars, translated by A. D. Godley (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1920) 1.31.

[2] Nigel Spivey, Greek Sculpture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2013), p. 129.

[3] Paul Faure, “Les Dioscures a Delphes,” L’Antiquite Classique vol. 54 (1985), pp. 56–65 and Claude Vatin, “Monuments votifs de Delphes,” Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique vol. 106, no. 1 (1982), pp. 509–525.

[4] Vincenz Brinkmann, Die Polychromie der archaischen und fruhklassischen Skulptur (Munich: Biering & Brinkmann, 2003), p. 255.

[5] Catherine Keesling, Early Greek Portraiture: Monuments and Histories (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2017), p. 59.

Additional resources

Lin Foxhall, “Monumental Ambitions: The Significance of Posterity in Greece,” in Time, Tradition, and Society in Greek Archaeology: Bridging the ‘Great Divide’, ed. Nigel Spencer (London: Routledge, 1995), pp. 132–149.

Catherine M. Keesling, Early Greek Portraiture: Monuments and Histories (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017), especially pp. 58–59.

John Griffiths Pedley, Greek Art and Archaeology 5 th Edition (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2012), pp. 173–175.

David Sansone, “Cleobis and Biton in Delphi,” Nikephoros vol. 4 (1991), pp. 121–132.

Nigel Spivey, Greek Sculpture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), p. 129.

Andrew Stewart, Greek Sculpture: An Exploration (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990), p. 112.

British Soldier in Sant' Angelo - History

Here is a graphical represetation of the diNardo family branches that I know about:

There are a few postings about the diNardo family on Sant'Eufemia Surnames.

In January of 2002, Tony diNardo left an entry in my Guestbook and we traded a few emails:

I know of most of the Mancinis in Aliquippa. My Dad grew up in West Aliquippa. I didn't know about the ones in McKees Rocks.
Is your DiNardo family related to Mancinis or DiGiovines?

Hi, Mark--
Glad you dropped me a line. I was born in S. Eufemia a Maiella, in Abruzzo, Italy 'way back in 1924.. I am not directly related to the DiGiovines of West Aliquippa, but we were "compares" and very close to them. They lived on Main St., and had a son John (who would have been 85 years old but passed away some years back in Washington, D.C. They also had two daughters, now probably in their late sixties, named Angeline and Elda. As a kid, before WWII, I remember visiting W. Aliquippa many times, and the names of DiNardo, Mancini, etc. were very common. I seem to recall a family with your last name (I'm hazy on this), with a son who was very bright and I believe went on into mathematics. Many of the folks I met were from the same Italian village, or near there.

I was "surfing" (if that's the right word) around the words Abruzzo Region and saw your name and message. Sorry I don't have the exact spot (I'm not a whiz at the PC) but refuse to sit around like a couch potato, so I attack it once in a while.

Incidentally, in Pittsburgh I lived in Hazelwood, where I worked in the Jones & Laughlin rolling mill both before and after WWII (I was in the Air Force and always resented the fact that I was sent to the Pacific instead of Italy where I might've been a "Mayor" of some town with my knowledge of Italian. But I was fortunate in that I was a bombardier on B-24s and wouldn't have liked bombing my "birthland. I went to Pitt and Duquesne and left Pittsburgh in 1960, but visited regularly until my folks died. Have lived and worked in New England until I retired in 1987. Now living in New Hampshire. Have one son (named Mark!) who's in NJ, three daughters in Denver, NH, and Mass., and nine grandkids

My father grew up in West Aliquippa after immigrating from S'Eufemia about 1930. He was about 13 at the time. He worked at J&L in Aliquippa for almost 40 years, retiring in the early 80's. My mother was born in San Pietro Avellana and immigrated also in the late 20's. She grew up in Beaver Falls until she married my dad and moved to Aliquippa.

My grandmother and grandfather lived in West until their deaths as did my uncle Tony. He passed away in the early 90's.

My dad tells stories of knowing Henry Mancini as a child in West.

The soldier in the photo is my uncle Tony DiVecchio. He lived in West Aliquippa, PA until his death about 10 years ago. We had many diNardo's in Aliquippa. I've found a lot of Timperio's and diGiovine's in the Boston area.

The nearest diNardo that I have in my direct family line is Maria Raffaela diNardo, my great-greatgrandmother.

Since we are from such a small town, we all have all these family names in our ancestry. I'm distantly related to Ada diNardo, she and her husband own the hotel in Sant'Eufemia. If you look at the "D" page of my family tree, you can see all the diNardo's in my data base.

If you can tell me some names of parents, grandparents or great-grandparents, I will look though my data to see what I can find. I have copies of records from Sant'Eufemia which cover the period 1809 to 1865. So I can lookup births/marriages/deaths during that period. The Archivo di
Stato di Pescara has all the records from 1865 on.

My wife and I were in Italy last summer, trip report at:

Thanks for the note. Your uncle Tony must certainly have known my godfather, Raphael DiGiovine, who lived on Main Street, West Aliquippa--and Carmine DiNardo, another "compare" who lived down the same street. I was taken there many, many times in the 1930's. I remember the tunnel under the I saw a posting by Dave Letteri on Sant'Eufemia Surnames: railroad tracks to reach the town, and the "awful" odor of the drinking water (drawn from the Ohio with its putrid discharges from all the J&L mills. Henry Mancini, as you probably know, was from West Aliquippa, and played the flute in the local Italian band that marched in all parades before he went to Carnegie Tech and then on to Hollywood.

I grew up in Hazelwood, about 4 miles up the Monongahela River from the Golden Triangle. I went to Squirrel Hill's Taylor Allderdice High, and worked in J&L's local rolling mill before volunteering for the (then) Army Air Force. I was a bombardier on B-24 Liberator Bombers and flew 39 missions over Pacific targets from N. Australia to New Guinea, the Philippines, Formosa, Hong Kong and finally Okinawa (I was always thankful that I didn't have to bomb Italy). .After the war, I went to Pitt, and then grad law school at Duquesne. I went into the then-new field of "personnel" (now Human Resources) in the steel, then chemical, and finally the East Coast retail industry. (Often got to California to visit the Von's company). Ended up as Sr. VP with Stop & Shop, and retired in '87. I am a dedicated photo-hobbyist and my wife Elly and I have traveled a lot, giving me the opportunity to take lots of pictures and work with them in my B/W darkroom.

My mother's side of the family were Pantalones, and often talked about the Man of Iron. My father's were DiNardo's, but I have less info about them (that grandfather died when my dad was very young). My mother's dad was Fiorinto (or Fiorindo), and had a house near the then-piazza near the church, with a large oven on the first floor to bake bread for the village, I was told.

If Elly and I make it to Sant' Eufemia this spring, I intend to dig into our family tree with my cousin, Maria Timperio, who is the village's postmistress (as her father Antonio had been before her). I will also talk with Piero DiNardo, who has a "cafe" in town, and who I'm told his interested in genealogy. I will have Maria check the Church records with me--I know my baptismal record is there.

When in the village, I went to the cemetery (very nice photos you got of everything) and was startled to see a grave-stone foot of Vincent (Jimmy) DiNardo, a "cugino"of my dad's. The reason for my reaction is that in the 30's it was customary to take in house boarders and Jimmy, as we called him, had boarded with us--and he and I had shared the same bed!

Here's the data I have thus far, from my cousin Maria:
Grandparents on Pantalone side: Fiorindo Pantalone and wife Anna Gioconda D'Amico. They had 5 children: Daughter Maria Camilla who married Rocco DiNardo (my father). Son Pietro who married Antonietta Pallone. Daughter Mariuccia who married Camillo DiNardo. Daughter Annina who married Nicola DiNardo. Daughter Antonietta who married Antonio Timperio.

These children ended up in: the first two in America, Mariuccia in Australia Annina in Argentina. And Antonietta stayed in Sant' Eufemia. In all, they had 21 children (if my data is correct).

When I got your email listing your grandparents, the names sure sounded familiar. I quickly checked my database and there was Fiorindo Pantalone with his son Pietro Pantalone and his son's wife Antonetta Pallone. I didn't have your mother, though.

With some help from a cousin in Canada, I have that Pantalone line traced back to 1665.

Look at the attached file.

Fiorindo's parents were Raffaele Pantalone and Clarice diPietrantonio. They had 6 children that I've found. I'm related to that whole family through my 4G Grandparents, Pietro Pantalone and Giovanna Finadamo - who were Fiorindo's grandparents.

I didn't have anything on your grandmother, Anna Gioconda D'Amico.

So, after I entered your branch of the family, my computer tells me:
"Anthony "Tony" DiNardo and Mark Camillo DiVecchio are 4th cousins 1 time removed. Their common ancestors are Pietro Pantalone and Giovanna Finadamo."

I learned about Pietro and Antonetta and their two children, Jenny and Nick, from my cousin Lucy Pantalone Ricchio who lives now in Revere, MA, previously in Watertown. (it was her sister we stayed with in Sant'Eufemia last summer.)

It sounds like you led an interesting life. From bombardier to lawyer to photographer. You retired about the same time as my father (he from J&L).

The tunnel into West Aliquippa was closed many years ago. My uncle and my father must have known both Raphael DiGiovine and Carmine DiNardo. I will ask my father when I talk to him. He lived in West from 1930 to 1949 when he moved into the main part of Aliquippa where he and my mother still live.

Have fun reading that family tree. Most of the Pantalone line work was done by Monika Baltistone from Canada.

Mark -- My wife Elly and I have both come down with something (flu?) and our doctors tell us that it will take some time to get out of our systems (all New England has "it" because the temperatures have been see-sawing up and down).

I wanted to let you know that I was able to do some "reading" of the data you sent, and it is fascinating because I've never reviewed this kind of info before. For instance, I have no clue as to what the term "1(or once) removed" means in genealogy.

Another item I noticed is that my Uncle Peter Pantalone also had a son, Fiore, is not noted in the record. Fiore was (I'm guessing) born about 1925--28 or so. I was a couple of years older and remember that he volunteered in WWII as a Marine in the Pacific Theater. After the war, he suffered a heart problem and was one of the first patients in the region to receive open heart surgery and bypasses (my memory is clear on this because I was living in Massachusetts then and attended an affair where his parents were afraid that Fiore might harm himself because he insisted on dancing during his recovery period. I lost touch with them after Uncle died and I'd moved away.

I hope you and wife are doing better. Sally got a cold/flu(?) also and it took her two weeks to get over it. Somehow, I managed to not get it.

We just got back from a trip to visit her daughter (and new grandson) in Ogden, UT. Many relatives from my mother's side of the family (Frazzini) lived there. Here is my trip report:,%20UT.html

I talked to my Mom yesterday in Aliquippa and she said it had turned very, very cold.

I can tell you about cousins. Cousins are always of the same generation - that is children of siblings are "first cousins" and grandchildren of siblings are "second cousins" and so on.

Cousins become 'removed' when they are NOT of the same generation. So, for example, a first cousin of my mother would be my "first cousin, once removed". A first cousin of my grandfather would be my "first cousin, twice removed" and so on.

I do have a Fiorindo Pantalone my notes but didn't know who he was. I found him in the Social Security Death Index:
born: 18 Feb 1928
died: Jan 1984
location: 02172 (Watertown, Middlesex, MA) 02172
SSAN: 023-20-8570

So this must be him, as you mentioned, the son of Pietro Pantalone.

I just got off the phone with Lucy Pantalone Ricchio. Lucy is my first cousin who lives in Belmont, MA. Lucy's mother, Eufemia, and my father were siblings.

She remembers your family. She told me that my father took her and her mother to Pittsburgh to visit your parents. She said you were not there at the time. She does remember meeting you, possibility at the funeral for your mother.

I told her what you wrote in your emails and she was excited to hear about you. She thinks the last word she heard about you was when you
retired from Shop n Save.

Small world - and we are all cousins.

I have two questions (so far) for you:

1. You mentioned Maria Timperio, your cousin. Is she the daughter of your aunt Antonietta who married Antonio Timperio?
2. The last that Lucy heard, you lived in Maine. Are you still there?

Thanks for your note, Mark. Elly and I are still ailing, but will get through this New England winter eventually.

About Lucy Pantalone Ricchio: I don't recall her personally, but I could well have met her at the funeral of my Uncle Peter Pantalone some 25 or more years ago in Watertown, Mass. I attended with my cousin Louie (Luigi) DiNardo, the son of Uncle Antonio DiNardo, my father's brother. My mother (and father) died in the late 80's, in Rhode Island where her funeral took place, so I might have met her there..

On Lucy's Pittsburgh visit--After WWII I got married in 1947 and worked and lived in Western Pennsylvania until 1960 when I moved to work in Boston with Stop & Shop. I retired in 1987. Thus Lucy must have visited my parents after 1960, when I visited Pittsburgh only during summer vacation to see my parents and my wife's.

After retiring, I moved twice--first to Maine, and about eight years ago to New Hampshire, were I now live in Bedford, just outside of Manchester.

As to my cousin Maria Timperio, she is the daughter of my aunt Antonietta who married Antonio Timperio. She has one brother, Bernardino (Dino) who spent his career in the Consular Services of Italy, and has quite a history. I correspond constantly with Isa, Maria's daughter (she also has a son, Lucio) who took English in college and is quite proficient in it (Dino isn't, so I have fun using the computer Italian translation services (and then trying to correct the more obvious errors). I'd like to add that I have been working on some memoirs (my 9 grandkids keep "pushing" me to do this). If you wish, I'd be happy to send you a copy, but be patient--I started in 1924 and am just now around 1942. I don't know when I'll finish, because life's day-to-day chores keep interrupting. (In this same vein, I wrote a novel while living in Maine (no competition for Tom Clancy!). Let me know if you'd like to have a copy. I'm not so hot with computers, though I'm learning, so I'll try to send you a few pages of memories I've written so far--perhaps the Sant'Eufemia part (which I may re-do with the much greater info you were good enough to send me).

Thank you very much for the LOOOONG email. Those are the kind I love.

I've been trying to get my parents to do what you are doing but I can't seem to convince them. What I am doing is that everytime I get to Aliquippa, I get them talking and I try to write down what they say. It's still a battle.

Next time I talk with Lucy, I will tell her what you remember.

I expect you are having quite a spell of cold weather in New Hampshire this week.

I will be re-reading your email several times over the next few days.

Its been quite a while since I wrote.

I hope you and your wife got through the winter ok. Now with springtime at hand, I imagine that everything is turning green and beautiful.

Even here in San Diego, were we usually get about 7 inches of rain a year, we got over 15 inches this winter. For us that is really a lot. So even here, everything is green - but, as usual, by July or so, things will start to turn brown again.

I read through your long email about your childhood and emmigration to the US. I wish I could get my father to write such a history. He was about 12 years when he, his brother, and his mother left Sant'Eufemia.

I have some comments about the history:

You probably did not enter the US via Ellis Island. According to the Ellis Island web site, starting in 1924, "The main function of Ellis Island changed from that of an immigrant processing station, to a center for the assembly, detention, and deportation of aliens who had entered the U.S. illegally or had violated the terms of admittance. The buildings at Ellis Island began to fall into disuse and disrepair."

When I look at the Ellis Island records, I have never seen any from Italy after 1923.

Since Sant'Eufemia is in the Maiella National Park, the town is filled to capacity on holiday weekends. In other words, at certain times way toooo many people turn off the the Autostrada and drive up into the mountains.

We were there on 15 Agosto and, that being a national holiday, the town was packed. Cars were parked everywhere. The main street through town, which was usually a narrow two lane road, was a narrow one-line road because of cars parked in the roadway. Right outside of town is a giant picnic area. Apparently a lot of people come up into the mountains from the towns of Pescara and Chieti. When we drove to Pescara, it only took about an hour.

My cousin, Domenico, told me that the number of tourists has been declining for the past 5 years. He blames it on the fiscal policy of the government which has caused large price rises of everything - we definitely noticed that when we were there.

Have you every searched the Ellis Island or US Census records for information about your genitori and zii? I took a quick look yesterday and found a few things.

If you haven't seen that information, I will be happy to send it to you.

Do you know names of the wives of your zii, Antonio, Alfonso and Lorenzo? Do you know when they were born? Do you know the names of their parents (your grandparents on your father's side)?

This information will help me confirm that I am looking at the right people in the Ellis Island records.

Did you, or are you, going to Sant'Eufemia this year?

My best to you and your wife,

Caro Marco--
I, too, took a long time before responding. We in New England also have had more than our share of rain--and the heat which is everywhere in the US, apparently.

Thanks for your comments about the memoirs I want to leave my kids and grandkids. I especially appreciate the data on Ellis Island. I have no remembrances at all of that portion of my Mom's and my entry into America (so I used my imagination). I'm glad, in retrospect, that I didn't ask them to put my name on their "wall" as having gone through as an immigrant--now that I know that I undoubtedly didn't.
As to the visitors to Sant'Eufemia--I visited there for three weeks with my wife and three of my kids just over a month ago. Two of my first cousins have homes there, and we had a ball both there and in Pescara where my second cousin lives. While there, I talked by phone to several other cousins in Argentina. I was also given a list of 22 cousins in all, with me heading the list as the oldest--they are in Italy, Argentina and Australia.

My relatives told me that while (as you pointed out) many visitors come to the village on holidays, the flow of "tourists" as I think of them is pretty much limited to relatives of the inhabitants. The disadvantage of the dollar against the Euro is also involved, as you pointed out.
One of my kids and her husband are considering buying a house in either Sant'Eufemia or Caramanica so that all my nine grandkids may have a root-place. We'll see.

I took over 300 film photos and got enough copies for the families there--the views (as I'm sure you saw it yourself) of our village from both Rocco Caramanica across the valley, and from the road high up the side of the Maiella, were breathtaking.

We also travelled to many of the towns in the mountains, including L'Aquilla at the Gran Sasso, Chieti, etc. The view of the Gran Sasso from the village of Citta San Angelo is spectacular.

I did get from Washington D.C. a copy of the ship's manifest showing both my and my mom's names as passengers. The ship was Conte Biancomano--in 1929--and coincidentally, a friend of mine in Pittsburgh took the same ship to Rome to study medicine in 1949!

I know some of my aunts' names--Alfonso's was Maria (maiden--Martucci). Lorenzo's was Yolando (maiden--Mariano). But, all my relatives only father's side are a mystery to me. I tried to talk with some DiNardo's, but there were many families in the village with that name. Two of my aunts, one in Australia and one in Argentina, both married DiNardos but were not related to one another.

On my next trip, I'll check the Church and Municipal records

Take care and buona salute to you and your wife.

It sounds like you had a good trip to Sant'Eufemia.

You got around much more than I did. We saw a little of Sulmona, Pescara and just drove through a few small towns.

I don't speak Italian so we were somewhat limited.

Interestingly, my mother arrived in the US on the Conte Biancomano in 1926. I have their original 3rd class ticket for her and her parents. They arrived in New York but since my grandfather was a citizen, they just arrived as "normal" people.

In my last email, I mentioned that I found a lot of information about your diNardo uncles on the Ellis Island site. If you haven't seen that, I can email you what I found.

I'm sorry, Marco, that I didn't answer sooner. My wife and I have been wrestling with some health issues but we have come out of them OK.
I was really thrilled to learn about your mother coming to the U.S. on the Conte Biancomano just three years before I did! It really is a small world.

I appreciate your offer to send me information about my uncles and Ellis. I would like to get it if I can. Many thanks.

I've learned that my second cousin's father, who owned the Hotel Italia in Sant'Eufemia, died and she and her brother are thinking of taking it over. They will have a lot of refurbishing etc. to do, but seem eager to try (the job situation is not very good in at least their part of Italy).
Trust that all's well with you. California has forest fires and we have floods (though, fortunately, not in our area of NH). Mother Nature is a potent powerful force to be reckoned with.

I am happy to hear that your are overcoming the health problems.

I will forward the information that I have about your uncles and Ellis Island is the next emails.

What is the name of the second cousin and father? I want to try to keep my data base uptodate.

Sally and I are well. No big fires yet this year.

Many thanks, but Vincenzo couldn't have been my uncle.My dad, Rocco, was the youngest of four brothers: Antonio, Lawrence, Alfonso and him (he was born in 1900).

All but my dad fought in WWI he was in the army later in Lybia. All of them came to America after 1919, exactly when I don't know, with Antonio coming first to Boston, and then Lawrence and Alfonso (not together, I think) to Pittsburgh, and my dad came in 1923. As to my second cousin, she is Isa Veri, the daughter of my first cousin Maria Timperio. Maria's dad, Antonio Timperio, married Antoniella Pantalone, my aunt and mom's sister. Antonio Timperio was Postmaster of Sant'Eufemia for many years, followed for some 30 years by his daughter Maria. Coincidentally, I telelphoned Maria today and we chatted awhile though my Italian is weak.

Hope this helps. I'll go online to search myself re my uncles.

I think my brain was turned off when I sent you that Ellis Island manifest.

The CORRECT ones will follow in the next emails.

Antonio born about 1893
Ellis Island, 14 Mar 1910, single, 17y, mother Maria diNardo in Italy, going to uncle Pasquale Mantenuto, Boston, MA, never
before in US. Arrived on the same boat as my grandfather, Camillo DiVecchia.
Ellis Island, 31 Jan 1920, 25y, married, wife Anna in Italy, going to brother Lorenzo, 5 North Square, Boston, MA, previously in
the US 1910-13.

Lorenzo born about 1895
Ellis Island, 17 Dec 1912, 17y, single, mother Maria Rosa diNardo in Italy, going to brother Antonio, Mechanicsville, NY.

Alfonso born about 1898
Ellis Island, 13 Dec 1920, 22y, single, mother Maria Rosa diNardo in Italy, going to brother Lorenzo Jaccagni (probably
Zaccaginni), Watertown, MA.

Rocco born about 1900
Ellis Island, 5 Sep 1923, 23y, married, wife Camilla in Italy. Going to brother Lorenzo diNardo, Watertown, MA.

I read your emails to Mark DiVecchio and noticed a reference to the following:

Grandparents on Pantalone side: Fiorindo Pantalone and wife Anna Gioconda D'Amico. They had 5 children: Daughter Maria Camilla who married Rocco DiNardo (my father). Son Pietro who married Antonietta Pallone. Daughter Mariuccia who married Camillo DiNardo. Daughter Annina who married Nicola DiNardo. Daughter Antonietta who married Antonio Timperio.

Father Luca Pantalone (dec)
Brothers Mario (My Uncle)
Donato (dec)
Palmino/Nino (Still lives in Sant'Eufemia)

Grandparents Domenico Pantalone Anna Di Pietrantonio

Great Grandparents Michele Pantalone Giaconda Di Giovine
Brothers Vitantonio Pantalone
Alfonso Pantalone
Fiorindo Pantalone
Sister Anna

So Fiorindo Pantalone was my Great Grandfathers Brother.

I knew both Mariuccia Pantalone and Camillo Di Nardo when they were alive and they are buried near my Mother & Father in a town called Lilydale, State of Victoria, Australia . Their Son Pasquale Di Nardo and his wife Maria live about 200 Metres from my house in a town called Mooroolbark, Victoria, Australia.

Mark and Enzo--I got your e mail and was immediately flooded with memories. I am now almost 84 and due to some health issues in the family, have not kept up with my computer mailing as I used to.

However, I will try to do better . Incidentally, the work "Paisano" is not listed in my huge Italian dictionary, but my folks used it all the time. I like it. Enzo--I am not sure how many of my emails to Mark you have seen. I came with my mother to the USA in 1929, at age five. An interesting thing for you is that, in World War II, I served in Darwin with the US Army Air Corps. We were attached to the RAAF and flew bombing missions all over New Guinea, Timor, and Borneo. Darwin was abandoned because the Japanese had pretty much leveled it, and they threatened to invade Australia. I only saw two other parts of Australia--Adelaide and Alice Springs, when our crew came south for a week of R&R (Rest and Relaxation) after 12 missions. Then we went on up to the Philippines for the rest of the war.

I'd appreciate if if you can help with one detail. My brother, Albert, got a sympathy note when our parents died in Rhode Island some 25 years ago. It was from Anna DiPietro, with an address in Wandin, Victoria. Unfortunately, that was the only contact we had with Australian "cousins". I wonder if you know her and she is still alive?

Also, are you by any chance related to the Pantalone who was called the Man of Iron?

I did send Mark some pages of my Memoirs. I'm sad to say that I have had to put them aside, since my wife needs more of my help. Mark was a great help by pointing out some errors of fact in the memoirs--such as that Ellis Island (the New York center for receiving European
immigrants) was closed down a few years before I arrived in America.

The memoirs-writing "ended" with the start of World War II, so I'll get back to the remainder when I can.

Its been a few years since we communcated. I really enjoyed your emails and especially enjoyed your story of growing up in Sant'Eufemia a Maiella.

Over those years, I was very involved with my parents. My mother's health declined in 2007 and she died at the age of 95 in October. My father's health got worse over the following year and he died in April of this year at the age of 91.

Thanks for the "wake up" message. My sincere condolences about the passing of your mother and father. My wife and I are not getting any younger and have had to slow down (not easy for a "type A" like me). We visited Sant'Eufemia 4 years ago with some of our kids and grandkids and had a ball. I am in constant touch via PC with them, but it doesn't appear that we'll get back again. Between there, Australia and Argentina, I have 23 cousins, including myself as the most aged. The parents of the 21 that couldn't get on the quota for the U.S. often comes to my mind--so you can imagine how I feel about the illegal aliens. That problem triggered the radical change in American culture--I am still trying to write my memoirs and intend to include my thinking about why America is sliding down the slope of leadership (which is very much like the demise of both Greek and Roman empires.). It's not a political phenomenon (both parties are to blame) so much as a shift from a discretionary philosophy to one where more and more people come to believe in Government-supplied "entitilements" which ultimately forces internal collapse. Don't mean to "preach" in any way, Mark. But at age 85 and having studied and observed the past 3 quarters of a century, I am very concerned about the lives my 9 grandkids and our 2-year old grandkid will have with the exploding debt. But---every generation has to learn for itself, if they are inclined to, and the future ones are in for a rude awakening.

I'm glad to hear that you are doing well. We all slow down - just don't stop!

Maybe you could tell me about your cousins all over the world. It would be interesting to learn about them because they are probably all related to me as well.

Tony sent me his history. I present it here so you can read about what it was like to grow up Sant'Eufemia and emigrate to the United States.


Prologue To my family:

When you read this, bear in mind that memoirs are at the mercy of every author's "selective memory." Invariably, the human brain sifts and filters, and the words written are the end result of that subjective process. I have not concerned myself about that, for two reasons: first, I can only do my best to report what I do remember but, beyond that, while thinking about and recording the scenes and events of my life from the perspective of an immigrant, I found myself more and more plagued by the questions about immigration that have nagged all Americans since the 9/11/01 attack on the World Trade Center.

The media have been filled with questions. In order to help thwart terrorist efforts to harm America, should all immigration be stopped --at least until some effective control and order can be brought to our borders? Or, alternatively, should we abolish quotas and allow anyone who wishes to enter the country, and thus at least remove the quota handicap for those desiring to enter legally? And, if so, what would that mean for our safety? Or, is there some possible middle-ground approach to our dilemma? As I wrote, the upcoming election of 2004 added fuel to this public debate. So much so that the more I wrote about my past 75 years in this country, the more memory dredged up deeper questions about the process of my transformation from immigrant to American. Questions such as--what part, if any, does immigration play in preserving and perpetuating the totality of qualities that marks us as unique among all the nations on Earth? And-beyond that--if the constant process of churning the melting pot that is America was to break down and disappear, could the potency of our core beliefs be inevitably adulterated to the point where she would suffer the same fate as earlier empires?

That led me to an even deeper question: what is there about mankind's makeup that impels us to put aside individual wants and desires, and band together for the common good in order to create a nation. And yet, once that nation grows and prospers, and we are free to "relax and enjoy" a well-earned existence, what causes us to inexorably chip away at the very core values that nurtured and sustained us during our troubling beginnings? I don't know the answers to these questions, but they were much on my mind as I wrote. My hope was to touch on them when I got to the end of this recording, to give one immigrant's--one transformed American's--views on a subject I believe deserves to be close to the heart of everyone who loves our country.

It was very hot weather when I started typing these memoirs, and the news in America was filled with reports of the worst electrical blackout in United States history. Millions of people in the Northeast, Midwest and neighboring Canada suffered from heat and total blackness for most of 2 days. Stifling weather was also an ongoing problem for our Armed Forces in Iraq, struggling to eradicate the last vestiges of Saddam Hussein's tyranny. But my thoughts were also with my second cousin, Isa in Abruzzo, Italy, which was having the hottest summer in recorded European history. Her e-mails told me she was seeking refuge with her babies Alessia and Stefano in the cooler air high up in the tiny Apennine village of Sant'Eufemia a Maiella.

I was born in that village, in what is now the Maiella National Park, on the Adriatic Sea side of the Italian peninsula, almost directly across from Rome. The Maiella, or Mother Mountain, as it is called by the people of the Abruzzo Region, is not a single mountain, but a massif - a wild, huge section of the 600-mile Apennine chain that runs the full length of Italian Peninsula. The Park covers 35,000 acres in three provinces, Chieti, Pescara and L'Aquila, and includes 60 peaks, 30 of which are over 6000 feet in altitude. Its eastern slopes descend steeply to the nearby Adriatic, while the western slopes devolve into a plain stretching almost 100 miles to the Mediterranean where most of Italy's historic cities are located. At an altitude of 2700 feet, the village of Sant'Eufemia is one of the highest on the massif, near the point where a sister mountain, Morrone, angles in from the west to join the Maiella and form the Passo San Leonardo. The recorded history of the village goes back to ancient times: in 1064 it was the property of Count Berardo until he gave it to the Abbey of San Clemente a Casuris in 1145 it belonged to Boamondo, Count of Manoppella in 1301 it went first to the Ughelly family, then on to Giacomo Arcucci, Count of Minervino upon his death in 1389, it became the property of the D'Aquino family. Over the last one thousand years it underwent several name changes: first as Santa Femi, then in 1300 as Sant Fumia. After the 1861 unification of Italy by Giuseppe Garibaldi, it was granted its present name in 1863 by special decree of King Victor Emanuele II.

I have always stood in awe of the courage it took for the very first pioneers who emigrated from Sant'Eufemia to America. They probably were part of the mass exodus of people from eastern and southern Europe recruited to work in America's expanding steel mills, railroads and mines between 1840 and 1914. Because of the remoteness of my village, my supposition is that the first hardy villagers to leave did so sometime between late 1900 and World War I. It was during that "war to end wars" that many of the youngest and healthiest males were ordered down the mountain to the city of Sulmona and boarded trains to take them off to military service. Those who made it home from battle, having seen for themselves that another world existed beyond their remote hamlet, and hearing tales about the "gold-paved streets" in America from letters written home by earlier pioneers, chose to strike out on their own. Each may have had his personal reasons, but they all shared the belief that they had no choice but to break the chain of family ties, a bond close to the heart of Italians. (I have met many immigrants over the years, from different countries, and the single common thread in all their thinking was the hopeless feeling that they could not earn a decent livelihood in their place of birth and--since most had not gotten beyond the third grade in school--a clear recognition of the responsibility to provide their children with sufficient education to give them a better chance in life.)

The 20th century history of the village includes a low point. Being strategically located near peaks like 8000-foot high Mt. Amaro, which on a clear day provided unobstructed views from Pescara on the Adriatic coast eastward across the entire peninsula to Rome, it was Sant'Eufemia's misfortune to be designated as an observation post by the German Army during World War II. The years of occupation were difficult, and older residents still recount tales handed down from their parents of much suffering and military atrocities. One was the shooting of Nicola Mancini and the young woman who had sheltered him, and the subsequent dragging of their bodies, tied to a cart, through the narrow streets. Many of the townspeople were conscripted to work in German military hospitals in other towns, or used as forced labor to install a cableway for war materials on Mt. Amaro, or to work on the fortress at Mt. Cassino. The times were such that, contrary to their basic natures and customs, people always kept their doors and windows barred at night. (Years later, when I first went to visit her, my aunt Antonetta, Isa's grandmother, told me of the abiding fears that drunken soldiers might force their way into homes with female inhabitants.) In September, 1943, with the increased pressure from the American 5th Army and British troops that had invaded Italy, the Germans ordered the town evacuated, and many of the townspeople had to take refuge throughout the harsh winter in old, long-abandoned farmhouses and natural caves up in the massif.

Even now, in the 21st century, few tourists turn off the Rome-Pescara Autostrada to travel up the only paved state road (487) to Sant'Eufemia. In 1924, when I was born, it was a rough, unpaved path chopped out of the Maiella's side, twisting its way upward in tortuous convolutions, past other hamlets, until finally reaching the town of Caramanico. From there it kept on, though less steeply, winding for five more kilometers, until finally leveling off at my tiny village, and continuing beyond.

Logic tells me that there must have been some horse or donkey-driven carts used in those days, and possibly even motor-driven vehicles of some sort, to deliver goods and mail to the town, but my parents never talked about any mode of transportation except walking to wherever they had to go. In the town itself, a few dozen houses lined the few streets. Meandering pathways, surfaced with hand-laid rough stones, surrounded the town piazza. While the road from Caramanico was almost level, any traveling out of town in the other direction was more difficult. The narrow road wound through the Passo San Leonardo, at the juncture of the Maiella with Mt. Morrone. Then it abruptly dropped off the other side of the pass and zig-zagged back and forth for half a mile down Mt. Morrone's sheer side. At the lower valley floor, there was a long, several-kilometer stretch of rolling countryside leading to the city of Sulmona. When I was very young, I must have been carried somehow down to Sulmona at least once, on a bright summer day, because I distinctly recall my mother describing how we gawked at the wide streets lined with stores, and what must have seemed like a thousand houses, each with long, flower-filled boxes under every window.

Sant'Eufemia had no industries and no jobs then. People's lives essentially revolved around meeting the essential needs for living. Home radios wouldn't arrive for ten years or so, there were no phones, or oil or gas for cooking and house-heating, no plumbing systems, no doctors and no stores. I doubt if there was electricity (and undoubtedly no money to pay for it), because I remember lanterns, and the constant smells and flickering of lighted candles, and fireplaces. Each household grew its own vegetables in odd-shaped garden plots, handed down from generation to generation and marked off with rambling, stone walls. Staples for eating, such as flour, coffee and olive oil, were bought on occasional trips to Caramanico's few stores. Each family had its own assortment of cows, sheep, goats, pigs and chickens--and few pets, unless they served some useful purpose, such as cats for catching mice.

Village men and boys did the heavier chores, using their backs or donkeys to gather firewood for daily cooking and house heat, as well as gardening, shearing, milking, making cheese and butchering. Wine played an important part in daily life, and most men made a barrel or two every year. Because of their rudimentary equipment, it was largely a matter of luck whether they ended up with wine or vinegar. I remember that one particular delicacy was wine vinegar sprinkled on freshly picked dandelion salads early in the springtime. Fall was also a time for canning and storing a supply of fruits and vegetables-especially tomatoes-and hand-grinding homemade sausage to be preserved in sealed, oil-filled jars. But all through each and every season, the women performed their never-ending tasks of house-and-children-tending, somehow still finding time to sew clothing and knit thick woolen sweaters to help fight the chills of the long winters.

The stone church of San Bartolomeo Apostolo, with its distinctive campanella and 14-foot high wood and silver Tabernacle, has been the central focus of the town since its construction in 1280. (My mother undoubtedly made certain that I was Baptized and taken to Mass regularly. Like most Italian women, she served as the watchdog of the family's religion.) The church was built along one side of the small town piazza, near the vertical stone slab that was the village's fountain. A constant cold stream of water from the rains and melting snows of the massif poured out of a pipe embedded in the slab. In the summertime, after I had learned to walk, whoever took me with them to fill jugs and pans would let me stick my face under the pipe to drink. My Grandfather Fiorinto's two-story house stood on the corner across the piazza from the church. It had a huge brick oven that took up most of the ground floor, which he used to bake bread for the entire village.

My mother's maiden name, Pantalone, means "pants" in English. Some Italian family names have English meanings, such as DiGiovine (Young) but, as far as I know, DiNardo has no English translation. At one point, I thought it was associated only with our specific area of Italy, perhaps as an abbreviation of the last word of the Passo San Leonardo. But when computers came into being I searched and found many DiNardos listed in telephone White Pages of towns all over Italy. I did run across one reference that said it may have been derived from Hapsburg tribe-invaders of Italy during the Middle Ages. The actual source and possible meaning, if any, remain a mystery for me. I never knew my grandfather on my father's side, who had died at the turn of the 20th century. He had four sons - Antonio, Lawrence, Alfonso and my father, Rocco, who was born in 1900. Between 1919 and 1922, shortly after being discharged from military service, the three older sons departed, one at a time, for America. Antonio stopped at Watertown, Massachusetts to take up work at the Hood Rubber Company plant, while Lawrence, Alfonso and my father each followed to settle in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, into jobs at the Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation's By-Products Plant in Hazelwood. I was told that the selection of stopping points was dictated by the availability of work.. Over time, other immigrants from our village ended up in various places such as McKees Rocks and Aliquippa, Pennsylvania and further west, in Joliet, Illinois.

Quota restrictions caused even wider geographic dispersion. My grandfather Fiorinto and his wife Anna Giaconda, had five children, all of whom married. One by one, over the latter part of the 1920's and 30's, all but one departed from their roots. Peter, the only son, emigrated to Watertown. Two daughters went to other far-flung places around the globe: Mariuccia to Australia, and Annina to Argentina. My mother, Maria Camilla, was the third daughter and came to America with me. The youngest daughter, Antonietta, remained in Sant'Eufemia and married Antonio Timperio, the Postmaster of the village, and their two children, my cousins Berardino and Maria, have established ongoing e-mail contact with me through Maria's daughter Isa. My father departed for America in 1923, some six months before I was born on January 20, 1924. I am told that my birth was a long one, handled in the traditional fashion of the times by the village midwife. My mother's close-knit family took loving care of me until I was five, and I was terribly spoiled by doting aunts and adoring grandparents who devoted as much time with me and my mother as possible, painfully aware of the inevitability that we would be leaving them for good.

(In later years, particularly the half-century following World War II, I came to appreciate more and more the solid foundation of "family" gifted to me during those first years of my life. But it wasn't until I became a parent myself that I came to comprehend the enormous depth of pure, unconditional love and giving that every member of my Sant'Eufemia family showered on me. The fact that I have no negative recollections of those years, I believe, indicates that I was blessed with a very safe, satisfied life, constantly attended to, every need anticipated and fulfilled, with no illness worth anyone ever telling me about later, and certainly no fearsome or stressful experience embedded in my memory.)

The mental images I retain of my first five years could not include anything about my father, but any need I may have had for male companionship, I'm certain, were adequately filled by my grandfather and other males in the village. I carry the proof of one memory to this day-that of my grandfather cutting my hair (which he always did in the most loving and careful way) and, after accidentally slicing a small chip out of the rim of my left ear, hugging and kissing me until I stopped crying. I carry that nick to this day.

Another memory is of being bundled on Aunt Antonietta's lap, on the floor in front of the big stone fireplace that heated our house. I recall watching her poke the burning logs, and billowing showers of sparks whirling up into the chimney. There she would roast chestnuts and break off tiny bits to push between my lips. I loved the warm, succulent flavor and, to this day, whenever I smell chestnuts roasting, the image of that scene flashes into my mind.

I've retained other images. One, seen through my young-boy eyes, is of the town water fountain in what I clearly remembered as a huge town piazza. (The first time I went back for a visit some forty years later, I was amazed at how small it actually was.)

I'm sure that my mother had me sleep with her during those early years, because I vividly remember the game she played with me night after night before I fell asleep. She would slip one hand under the blanket and scratch her fingernails back and forth across the sheet to imitate the sound like currying mice. Even though I soon learned that the noise was nothing to be afraid of, I always cried out as if frightened, and she'd pull me tight and close, protecting me from all the world's harm.

I also remember well (both then and later in America) an uncommon thing she did. I'm sure that memory has stayed with me because of her secretive behavior each time she did it, as though afraid someone would catch her in the act. It only took place when a close relative, usually a family member, had been suffering with a painful, enduring headache and asked her to get "rid" of the "malocchio" or "evil eye" they felt someone may have "put" on them. She was always careful to make the attempt only when all window shades were shut and no one else (except me) was present. She'd pour water into a shallow dish, and some olive oil into a small cup. Then she'd recite some incantation over and over again as she rubbed her hand over the person's head. Finally, she'd dip her thumb into the cup, stroke it in the sign of the cross on the victim's forehead, and suspend her thumb above the dish so that drops of the oil fell into the water. Both of them would then stare intently at the oil droplets floating on the surface of the water. I never knew what they were seeing in the water--apparently a sign that was far beyond my understanding--but it happened enough times for me to remember it.

These recollections are what I have of my life in Sant'Eufemia from 1924 to the summer of 1929. For five years my father had been sending us money to pay for our journey to America. To this day I feel a sense of wonder and astonishment when I think of the courage it took for my mother to leave the safe haven of her tiny village, knowing she would never see her loving family again, take her first train and boat rides on a 2000-mile trip to a totally foreign world, surrounded all the way by strangers, unable to understand or speak a word of English-all the while looking out for and protecting a small son. What drove her had to have been the faith that, somehow, things would turn out better in an alien America where she and her Rocco could make a future for their family.

I have always been a little saddened because I don't remember my first train ride from Sulmona to Rome, or more about the ship, Conte Biancamano (Count Whitehand), that took us from Naples to New York. In later years my mother described it as being longer than our village church, with many levels, so that we had to go down several sets of stairs along with other immigrants into a big room with narrow sleeping places. Some of her recollections had faded, but not the ones about the crowded quarters and toilets

She said the voyage was not smooth at all, and that she was seasick all the time. But I don't remember feeling queasy. Among the other immigrants were Italian-speaking women also on the way to join husbands in America, and that provided a welcome relief for her. The food was undoubtedly adequate to sustain life, but must not have been very tasty, because after a day or two we found our way up the stairs to a deck where we could buy small strips of grilled meat-on-a-stick. I grew to love that meat treat, which only cost one small coin and, once my mother came to believe there was no danger for me, she would give me a coin and let me go alone to buy a stick.

I have no idea how long the voyage took, but records I requested from Washington, D.C. say we landed in New York on July 15, 1929. I also have no memory about passing through Ellis Island, but I can imagine how it must have been from movies and readings: a room more cavernous than any we'd ever been in before hundreds of confused immigrants being shepherded in serpentine lines clouds of fine dust from constantly shuffling shoes dozens of uniformed people, shouting in a foreign tongue, directing traffic with waving hands and pointed fingers a medical examination to search for contagious illnesses officials bending close and squinting at soiled and wrinkled slips of paper tags pinned to our outer clothing--attempting to decipher scrawled names and places of ultimate destination. I have always considered it a stroke of fate that the name DiNardo didn't pose a problem for those customs officers-history records tales of immigrants suddenly acquiring "on the spot" new family names in official records because of translation difficulties at the entry stage of their introduction to America.

(I don't know if it's true, but one version of the derivation of the offensive term "WOP" is that Ellis Island officials applied it to immigrants who had somehow lost their passports-and thus were tagged with the initials WOP, meaning WITH OUT PASSPORTS.)

I can only assume that New York had worked out special arrangements to see that the continuous flood of immigrants got from Ellis Island to the next step of their journey. We certainly could not have found our own way in Manhattan and onto the train bound for Pittsburgh. I must have been, by then, one confused and tired youngster, but the ordeal was not over, and we took a clanking ride across New Jersey and all of Pennsylvania that lasted many hours, during which I remember only fits of dozing and waking during stops along the way. Finally, long after midnight, the train stopped and someone came to point the way for us to get off. The train was a long one and our car was far from the station, so we had to walk on a cinder track alongside the cars, and my mother picked me up after a while. As we got closer to the station, she put me down and held my hand tight so I wouldn't stumble. Finally, silhouetted against the bright lights in the building ahead, I saw the black silhouette of a man running toward us, waving and yelling. He got up to us, grabbed my mother and kissed her, then bent to snatch me up and hug me tight against his chest. Groggy from the past hectic days, bewildered by this stranger who crushed me close, frightened at seeing my mum in tears--that was my introduction to my father, Rocco.

Tony diNardo passed away on 30 September 2017

Tony loved America and proudly served in the Army Air Corps as a bombardier in the South Pacific Theatre during WWII . He remained in the Air Force Reserves for many years retiring with the rank of Major. His accomplishments throughout his life were countless and inspiring.

After the war, Tony earned his undergraduate degree in chemistry from the University of Pittsburgh. He subsequently earned a law degree from Duquesne University Law School. He chose to apply his education in business and relocated his family to Boston, MA where he was employed by the Stop & Shop Companies. After an accomplished business career of 27 years, he retired from his position as Senior Vice President.

Tony initiated his retirement years in York Harbor, ME and then settled in Bedford, NH for many years. He pursued his many interests and hobbies, most notably photography and writing. His cherished gallery of photographs reflect his extensive travel during and after his business career. He published his first novel, "Rogue Pawn" in 1998 followed by his memoirs, "Across the Tracks" in 2014 at the age of ninety.

He was predeceased by his beloved wife of 62 years, Elly, in 2010. He is survived by his daughters, Jan McCarron (Joe) of Bedford, NH, Donna Boyt of Rye, NH, and Nan MacKenzie of Duxbury, MA and his son, Mark DiNardo (Diane) of Annapolis, MD. He also leaves his nine grandchildren, Kristin Boyt, Heather Romano, David McCarron, Michael McCarron, Kait MacKenzie, Steve MacKenzie, Tori MacKenzie, Lauren Dorris, and Rachele Layne. Tony was blessed with eight great-grandchildren as well, Mia, Bryce, Ellie, Jack, Ben, Max, Aaron, and Natalie.

The family would like to thank the numerous caregivers who were so kind and compassionate to Tony. We will miss Tony's ever present strength, wisdom, counsel, wit and enduring positive attitude. He was loved by all and leaves a lasting influence on the so many lives he touched.

DiNardo in Aliquippa, PA

Giovanni diNardo, his daughter Helen, and his wife Antonella diPietrantonio. Taken in West Aliquippa, PA. When I showed this photo to my mother, she recognized the people. She said that they were not related to us. It is possible that they are related to Kristi.

I got this email in 2005:
Date: Sun, 13 Feb 2005 13:11:46 EST
Subject: Sant'Eufemia a Maiella

I came across some old postings by Dave Letteri to Lou Stempkowski and I emailed them:

2001 3 May posting by Dave Letteri to Lou Stempkowski on the DiNardo Forum on

" Hello Lou, My grandfather, Angelo Roberto DiNardo, was born in 1888. His father was Raffaele DiNardo (b. 1858), and his mother was Filomena DiNardo (DiNardo was her maiden name). Angelo Roberto had a brother Luigi(!) and a brother Paolantonio.

Raffaele had another marriage, to Angelantonia DiNardo (yes, another DiNardo maiden name. I think Filomena and Angelantonia were sisters). Raffaele and Angelantonia had a son, Antonio, and a daughter, Annina. Pretty confusing, no?

My grandfather settled in Aliquippa, Pennsylvania, which is very near McKees Rocks, just a few miles away along the river. I also grew up in that area.

Let me know if this rings any bells with your mother! Best regards, Dave "

I saw some of your postings about the diNardo family. I've been helping two people trace their diNardo roots.. My father, Pasquale diVecchia was born in Sant'Eufemia. I grew up in Aliquippa.

Yes, my grandfather, Angelo Roberto DiNardo, was born in Sant'Eufemia in 1888. His parents were Raffaele DiNardo and Filomena DiNardo (yes, apparently DiNardo was her maiden name). They eventually settled in West Aliquippa, and my aunt Erma DiNardo, his daughter, still lives in Aliquippa (actually Center Township). I would love to know if you have any further information.

Thanks for your reply. I saw a bunch of posts between you and Lou Stempkowski on I've copied Lou on this email.

I've been in touch with Lou but he couldn't supply your current email. I then found it, accidently, on another web site.

I've been researching families from Sant'Eufemia for about 10 years. Recently, I was helping two diNardo descendents trace their families. We found a lot of information but couldn't trace back into the 1800's for branches of their familes.

First problem was that were three Luigi diNardo's born about the same time (early 1890's). Then the father's of the Luigi's all seemed to be Raffaele's.

You can see that we found you connected to Roberto who was the brother of Luigi (born 1894). We don't know much about Luigi's wife Antoniette diNardo's family tree.

Then there is another Luigi diNardo (born 1889). We know the names of his parents but not the ancestry.

The two people that I am helping are Jessica diNardo and Désirée Callouette. I've copied both of them on this email. Désirée is probably a second cousin (maybe once removed) to you.

Jessica is related through your great-grandmother's sister Eufemia diNardo. I've attached a funeral card for your grandfather that Jessica's grandmother had in a photo album.

I'll prepare a printout from my family tree data base program which adds more detail to the graphical tree and includes sources of information. I'll send that to you.

We would like help filling in some the blanks in the newer parts of the tree and adding more of the family tree into the 1800's and earlier.

One other question area is the ancestry of your GGF Raffaele's 2nd wife Angelantonio diNardo.

Of course the biggest question is whether we have the tree right in the first place.

My data base says that you and I are 4th cousins connected through GGGGP Giovanvincenzo diNardo and Angela Maria d'Antonio Francesco (both born in the 1780's).

Thanks for the info. I'll go through it in the next couple of days when I have time to digest it, and compare it with my records. I'll let you all know what I come up with!

DiNardo in McKees Port

Thanks for your email. Also, I've approved your membership to the Sant'Eufemia a Maiella group on Yahoo!.

Can you tell me more about how you are descendant from my 3G Grandparents? I am not Mormon but their interest in genealogy has certainly made my research a lot easier.

You might want to post a message to the group also, telling everyone about yourself.

Your website has kept me up all night working hard! I love it!

Where do you live? I am in Pittsburgh, PA. Most of the Denardos here come from the McKees Rocks area of Pittsburgh. However, may of my cousins now
reside in Texas or Flordia.

OK so this is what i have got. I think I have a whole new line for you to add to your tree. :) Your third Grandfather, Giovanvincenzo Dinardo had Roberto who had Raeffele who had Luigi who had 5 kids with his wife Theresina Pallone. One of the kids, Ralph, was my grandfather. I didn't see a line for Luigi on your tree so here it goes for your records,

Luigi Dinardo married Theresina Pallone ( born 28 Feb 1888 in _S Eufemia, Amaiella, Italy _ Death 22 mar 1964) ( Luigi changed his name to Louis) 5 Kids
Anthony Denardo (2 kids) Changed last name to DiNardo
Daniel Denardo (4 kids)
Mary Denardo Petrillo (7 kids)
Ralph Francis Denardo 1923 &ndash 1973, I come from him, He had 3 sons to his wife, Lillian Ann Pitoniak. Ralph Jr., Robert, and MIchael. Ralph changed the last name to Denardo from Dinardo.
James Joseph Denardo 1925 &ndash 1994 (6 kids)

I also have all the descendants from these people, I would be happy to give them to you if you want them. Please let me know.Also- they are all idiots for changing their names! They are all buried together and it looks funny to see all the different spellings. :)

Messages between me and "desireel159" via the message service:

I'd like to learn more about your tree. I have been helping a woman named Jessica Denardo (diNardo) trace her family tree and have run into many Raffaele, Daniele, Roberto and Luigi. So many that we are confused as to how they connect (or don't connect). We know of another Daniel born 13 Jan 1927 to another Luigi diNardo.

Subject: RE: diNardo Family GenealogyCiao, Mark!

Thanks for your email. I enjoyed looking at your website but, am not sure that my relatives are represented there. My great grandfather was Luigi DiNardo my great grandmother was Antoinette Mancini Dinardo. Daniel was one of their many children, including my grandmother, Alice DiNardo Matievich.

I, too, am confused on all of the DiNardo's of W. Aliquippa. Unfortunately, I am unable ask anyone as most of my relatives have since passed away. I WILL tell you that I was back in the area just last summer. My cousin and I visited our family's cemetery. While asking the groundskeeper to help us find our family's final resting spots, we came across MANY DiNardo's. My cousin, who still lives in the area, said "I went to high school with SO many DiNardo's!".

So, the short of it is that I'm truly unclear myself. but, WISH that I knew! Best of luck to you in your search and please let me know if I can help further.

There was your GGF born 31 May 1894, a Luigi born 13 May 1889, one born 6 Jun 1892, another born 23 Oct 1893 and another who I don't know when he was born.

Several had kids named Raffale, Daniel and Antonio. It appears that two of them had a brother Roberto.

Can you give access to your tree on ancestry?

Do you mind if I ask how you knew the date for my GGF? Sounds like you've been researching for quite awhile!

Do you know anything about his parents or the parents of his wife, Antoniella Mancini?

Here is a summary of what I know about your GGF (if you don't have any of these documents, I can email them to you):

  • 1909 8 Nov Boston arrival, 16y, single, father in SEaM - Raffaele, going to brother Roberto in Woodlawn, PA.
  • 1920 7 Jul EI arrival (3 is crossed out and replaced with 7) 26y, Father in SEaM - Raffaele. Going to brother - Roberto, in Woodlawn, PA. Prevously in the US from 1909 to 1913 in Aliquippa, PA.
  • 1925 Declaration of Intention and 1927 Certificate of Arrival, Box 237, Aliquippa, PA. DOB 31 May 1894, Arrived 7 Jul 1920 on the Ferdinand Palasciano, Wife - Antoniella.
  • 1927 Petition for Naturalization, 31 May 1894, Born SEaM. 520 Beaver Ave, Aliquippa, PA. Wife Antoniella (Jun 1900), children Raffaele, Daniele, twins Filomena and Italia. Witnesses Paolo diNardo and Nicola Salvitti both of Aliquippa.
  • 1928 21 Feb Oath of Allegiance.
  • 1930 census, Aliquippa, PA, 38y (1892), single, brother-in-law (?) of Mary Crivelli. First married at 26y listed as married but wife not listed. Two children Tony and Elsie.
  • 1940 census, Aliquippa, Beaver, PA, 46y, same house as 1930. Wife and children.
  • 1980 obituary in the Beaver County Times of daughter, Ida.

Thanks for your email. I enjoyed looking at your website but, am not sure that my relatives are represented there. My great grandfather was Luigi DiNardo my great grandmother was Antoinette Mancini Dinardo. Daniel was one of their many children, including my grandmother, Alice DiNardo Matievich.

I, too, am confused on all of the DiNardo's of W. Aliquippa. Unfortunately, I am unable ask anyone as most of my relatives have since passed away. I WILL tell you that I was back in the area just last summer. My cousin and I visited our family's cemetery. While asking the groundskeeper to help us find our family's final resting spots, we came across MANY DiNardo's. My cousin, who still lives in the area, said "I went to high school with SO many DiNardo's!".

So, the short of it is that I'm truly unclear myself. but, WISH that I knew! Best of luck to you in your search and please let me know if I can help further.

Thank you so much for the kind words and the scans. I, too, hope the future will shed some light on MY Luigi. Until then, I can't thank you enough for all of your time and effort. I went from knowing nothing but a name to beginning to understand who my Great Grandfather, Luigi, was.

The only thing that is keeping me from believing that the 1930 census, that we discussed, is my Luigi is the date of arrivial. For this record it says 1926 but, my Luigi arrived in 1920. Still can't figure out where the wife and other kids would have been. or how the brother-in-law fits in.

Also, did you notice Roberto's 1905 Phil. arrival? He was going to see his cousin, Angelo DiNardo at 810 Webster, Pittsburgh. There are four others going to that same address. Some of their names are Timperio and Di Vecchio! (Gracondino , Giussepe, and Amillo.) I see on your site that your 3rd GGF was Giussepe Di Vecchio. I wonder if our relatives came over together?!

DiNardo in Canada

I was sent a site and I came across names of people I know. I then saw pictures of Peter and John Battistone. I know that we are related some how on their mothers' side, which is therefore my grandmothers' side. Clementina Pantalone, my paternal grandmother, she passed away in Argentina. Her sister Agnese was listed on your page as being found at the cemetery. I was alway curious of the family tree, but have never been given too much information. Would I write to the Sant'Eufemia city hall to get records from the time of the war? where would I find records prior to that? I read that all records were destroyed during the war.

Any advise you can give me would be greatly appreciated. My mom is deceased since 1975, she was a Di Nardo, and my father secluded himself from everyone, he's a Di Giovine.

Thanks. I will look over all of the family that you named. You may be able to fill in a lot of the missing pieces for Canada and Argentina.

I've attached a photo that I got from Domenico diGiovine. My notes said:
1937 or 1938
Grandparents of Domenico diGiovine: Nunziata diNardo and Filippo Pantalone.
(Parents of Domenico's mother Agnese Pantalone.)
Aurelia diGiovine (cousin to Domenico diGiovine) Domenico diGiovine.
I got the photo from Domenico diGiovine.

I love your geneology research. There are a number of decendents from St. Eufemia who belong to St. Eufemia Nel Mondo, which is a facebook link. The members of the municipal office in St. Eufemia send out occasional updates on events happening in the town. I have sent your e-mail to Patrizia Boccaccio, boccacciop to add to the group. If you have e-mail contacts of other decendents, it would be great if you would forward them to Patrizia, including their first and last names. Patrizia works at the municipal office and oversees tourism. There is already a very large group of members.

So my name is Flaviana DiNardo. My father's name was Antonio DiNardo. His parents, Filomena DiVecchia and Giuseppe DiNardo immigrated to Toronto, Canada in about 1954.

My father had 6 sibblings, Felice, Francesco, Eufemia, Concetta, Nichola and Angelo. There are now many DiNardo's in Toronto. My mother's name was Maria Pantalone. Her sibblings were: Eva, Dorinda, Gino, Angiolina.

Gino Pantalone took an interest in boxing when he arrived in Toronto in his early 20's. There was also a Pantalone who became famous in Boston I think. They called him The Iron Man. In the early 30's, he took jobs in the circus and amusement industries and was able to pull and lift enormous weights. Look the Iron Man up on line and you will find old newspaper articles.

I have visited St.Eufemia many, many times and I have a passion for the town, our history and our culture. Let's work together to keep our heritage alive and hopefully you and your decendent contacts will join facebook St. Eufemia Nel Mondo.

I had recently heard from Clelia diGiovine and she told a little about your diNardo family. I also heard from Michael Palin.

I'm always interested in learning more about people from Sant'Eufemia. Also, there were many diNardo in Aliquippa where I grew up. I'm pretty
sure that many of them were your cousins, descendent from brothers of Giuseppe.

How far back have you researched? Do you know the parents of Giuseppe diNardo, Filomena diVecchia, Luigi Pantalone or Anna deAngelis?

Frank "The Strongman" Pantalone : (web site of Kristi (diPietrantonio) Niedzwiecki).

Hello Mark. Yes the DiNardo's in Aliquippa were my relatives and as a child, my family would visit often. They were 2 brothers of my grandfather Giuseppe DiNardo and all of them worked at the mill I will find the names of my great grandparents on my mother's side. On my father's side
Francesco and Concetta DiVecchia

DiNardo in Australia

When Sally and I were in Sant'Eufemia in 2004, we met Angela Crivelli diNardo and her daughters, Linda and Carla. Angela married Giustino diNardo.

Angela's grandmother, Maria diVecchia, was the sister of my grandfather, Camillo. Her mother was Anine diNardo.

Angela's siblings are Lucia and Romeo.

I don't think I got their contact information (or if I did, I lost it).

Does anyone have email, post address or phone number for the family? I believe they did live around Melbourne.

I was just thinking of you today and lo and behold here is an email.

The connection I have to DiNardo's is my Grandmother Antionetta Piccolli's sister Anna Jasap married a Salvatore DiNardo. Their children are Lorenzine who married a Lucia and their children are Salvatore married Vivienne, Tony who married Christine and Nino who married Loraine. Salvatore and Anna Jasap also had a daughter Marrietta who married a Valerio Marcucci. I will forward this to Andrew as they still have family on the Crivelli side living in Sante Euphemia.

Mark, I sent this on to my cousin in Melbourne, he may know them

DiNardo in Michigan - Pasquale "Patsy Denard" diNardo

This branch of the diNardo family seems to be distinct from the other branches.

I'm always happy to hear from a descendant of a family from Sant'Eufemia.

I've attached a scan of the complete 1920 passport application that I found on for your grandfather.

I don't know anymore about him but since he is from Sant'Eufemia, I'm sure that your family and my family are related somehow.

The passport app lists his father as Vincenzo and that Patsy immigrated in 1913 and was naturalized in Ohio in 1919. It also shows that he served in the US army from 1918 to 1919.

I did a little more seaching tonight and I found that he is listed in a family tree on The owner of that tree is "F. DeNard". There aren't a lot of details on that tree. It does list his wife as Margaret Helen Grams (1904-1985).

I found the 1913 Ellis Island arrival manifest. He was going to his uncle Vincenzo DiVecchio in Watertown, MA.

That is all I know. Do you have any info about his family in Sant'Eufemia?

Let me know your thoughts when you have time, I appreciate your input.

I would say that there is a very good chance that Pasquale's mother was a DiVecchio.

I'm pretty familiar with all the names in Sant'Eufemia and there were no other names that contained those sets of letters. In other words, there aren't any other possibilities. With only very few execptions, people from that town married someone else from that town.

I don't read the 'n' though, I see it as "Dcchio".

Since Pasquale was born in 1895, I would estimate that his mother was probably between 20-30 years old so she would have been born between 1865 and 1875.

Unfortunately, the microfilmed records available to me go from 1809 to 1865. This always makes that jump from the US to Italy really difficult.

Had we talked about doing an email for you to send the Archivo in Pescara? I've had good luck with that when I hit these kinds of roadblocks.

Your are right about the Dcchio, no "n" . mistake in my typing. I agree about her being a DiVecchio, its very similar. I appreciate your time and expertise.

No, we didn't discuss an email to Archivo in Pescara, is that where all the birth/death records are kept? Let me know where you think I can go from here.

Take a look at #2 on my hints page about doing a letter.

I started researching my Grandfather's Uncle in Watertown, Mass.(per the manifest from Ellis Island) DiVecchio, Vincenzo (b. ) (from your site)

I believe this was Pasquale Dinardo's mother's brother. She is Vittoria DiVecchio[my great grandmother). They also had another sister Filomena DiVecchio, who came to the US. I found Vincenzo DiVecchio's marriage recording(link provided below) listing his parents as Matteo DiVecchio and Rosa Mastrantonio.(My great great grandparents)

Do you have any info on Matteo and Rosa DiVecchio from Sant'Eufemia?

Hope that wasn't too confusing, I am still trying to wrap my mind around all the connections. Also I did find relatives of Vincenzo DiVecchio, and I am hoping they can confirm the link to my great grandmother.

I recall that it took several months to get a reply. I would suggest waiting at least 3 months then resend the email. I have a short paragraph to add to the beginning that says you are resending because the first time might have gotten lost.

I can send you that if you need it.

So in my data, I have two Vincenzo's:

I6051 who was married to Maria Angela Timperio The only thing that I know about the family is from the obituary of their daughter Mary Rose DiVecchio when she died in 2005. You should be able to see that in my family tree data. The obit listed her parents and siblings. It confirmed a connection to the Arcese family tree that I found on ancestry.

I6491 who was married to Mary Colardi in 1914 per the marriage record that you found. This also confirms a connection to the Arcese family tree on ancestry.

The 1914 marriage record lists Vincenzo as widowed so I'm thinking that these two are the same Vincenzo's.

His father's name was Matteo and mother Rosa Mastratonio per the marriage record. Mastrantonio is a good name from Sant'Eufemia.

Vincenzo was born in 1875 . I have a Matteo DiVecchio born 26 Mar 1845 that could be the father. I don't have access to any records after 1865 so I can't ge sure. (He is person I1627.) I don't have anything on Rosa Mastrantonio.

Besides the EI manifest, do you have any independent sources that your grandfather's uncle was named Vincenzo and lived in MA?

I did some research on the family of Matteo DiVecchia and Rosa Mastrantonio.

You had found some marriage records and I found more. They had three children Vincenzo, Filomena and Loreto.

I've attached the marriage records in case you don't have them.

Vincenzo was married three times 1)Francesca Lodice 2) Maria Angela Timperio (or Timberio) and 3) Maria Giustina Colardi.

I could not find a record for the 2nd marriage.

I believe the reference to "Uncle" Vincenzo that Patsy Denard made on his EI arrival was to the Vincenzo in this family. I believe that Matteo DiVecchia and Vittoria's father, Diodato DiVecchia were siblings.

In Italy, cousins of parents are referred to as aunt and uncle.

  • I have seen a marriage record dated 27 Aug 1863 between Diodato diVecchia and Domenica Palmieri. It lists Diodato's parents - Isodoro diVecchia and Vittoria diCosmo.
  • I have seen the birth record of Matteo diVecchia dated 26 Mar 1845 which lists the same parents.
  • Though I don't have exact proof that the Matteo born in 1845 is the same Matteo that married Rosa Mastrantonio and lived in MA, to me, its the same person.
  • That these families all ended up in Watertown, MA also leads me to this conclusion.

Thanks for your entry in my DiVecchio Guestbook.

I'm always happy to hear from future cousins! I say "future" because even though we don't know how we are related right now, Sant'Eufemia is such a small town that everyone is related one way or another.

I will keep you and your nephew, Don, in mind as I do more research and I'll forward along anything that I find.

Along those lines, I've attached a scan of a page from a book - Ohio Soldiers in WWI - which lists Patsy's service in the US Army.

Well I know a little about the diNardo family. My father was born in Sant'Eufemia a Maiella and I have a lot of diNardo cousins.

I think that I have Pasquale diNardo in my data base.

I've been in contact with Donald Murphy, son of Helena who was the daughter of Pasquale and Margaret Helen Grams. I've also been in touch with Viola diNardo Riley.

Pasquale died 12 Apr 1987 in River View, MI.

If this is your family, I have Pasquale's ancestry going back a half dozen generations. I've not found my direct relationship to Pasquale but Sant'Eufemia was a very small town and everyone is related one way or another.

My name is Martha Truskolaski and my husband is Lawrence Truskolaski. I happened upon your site while trying to find information on my husband's mother, Ann (or Anna) Denard. My husband did not really know his mother as she left when he was very young and he was raised by his grandmother.

The little information I have about his family was given to me by his aunt. Ann married her brother Donald Truskolaski. My husband's aunt told me that she and Ann were a few years apart in age Ann would have been born about 1931 or 1932 Ann had several brothers and sisters (Jean, Pat-brother, Helen, Helena, George, Viola) Ann's father was named "Pat" Could not remember Ann's mother's name. Although we had always believed the last name to be spelled as "Denard", the aunt spelled the name as "Dinard".

My husband was always told that his mother was Italian. So much of the information that you have recorded seems to fit what little information I have on his mother. Is it possible to share any other information you might have, including other family members you might have had correspondence with? I would love to fill in the gaps that we have for the family. By the way, my husband was born in Wyandotte, MI.

By the way, I did read some of your comments regarding travel in Roma. Found it truly delightful. My husband and I traveled to Rome in 2010 and you are absolutely right regarding the travel conditions!! I really wish we had known more about his family and where they were from before we made our trip. Guess we will just have to schedule another trip to Italy soon and travel to Pescara to see his homeland. Oh, just wouldn't that be terrible! LOL

Thank you so much for taking the time to read this and I would appreciate any help that you can pass along.

Thanks for your email. I would be very happy to help with what I know about Patsy Denard. You have a lot more about their children than I have. I don't have much about his wife.

The information that I have comes from three main sources, 1) from several family trees that I found on, 2) documents that I've found and 3) information from people who have contacted me.

So the third source first. I've been contacted by Viola diNardo Riley - the daughter of Patsy and his wife, and by Donald Murphy, the son of Helen diNardo. I've copied both of them on this email - I don't know if their email addresses are still good or not.

Then for number 2, I can email you many of the documents that I've found on-line - as I have electronic copies of those.

For number 1, you will need an account on to access those trees. One of the trees is by Donald so he can probably give you that information directly. The other tree is not that informative.

First off, I've attached two printouts from my data base of what I know about the family. It goes back a few generations. I believe that what I have is correct but distant sources may be wrong or I might have entered something wrong. You should double check what I send and I'm always open to updates and corrections.

Secondly, I've attached a document that Donald Murphy sent me. He got it from the Archives in Pescara, Italy.

Thank you, thank you, thank you.

I cannot believe to only how quickly you have responded but also the wealth of information you are willing to share.

I must tell you that until last night, I had virtually no information on Larry's mother or her side of the family. I woke up early this morning and surprised him with the info from your website and much to his delight, the passport photo of his "grandpa" Patsy!

He does remember visiting his grandfather when he lived on Plum in Wyandotte.

I do hope to hear from Donald and Viola. It would be great to add as much information to the family tree as possible. Hopefully our grandchildren and great-grandchildren will cherish this info when they are older. I know our children currently have very little interest now!

Thank you again! I truly appreciate what you have sent and would love copies/updates as you have time to send.

I have been thinking of you recently! Just got back from my daughter's and found your emails. I sent a note off to Martha Truskolaski giving her my contact info and asking her to contact me.

DiNardo in Pittsburgh, PA

In Feb of 2014, I got this email from Dave DiNardo

Mark, I found your web site a couple of times. Once on my own about 5 years ago and more recently when Desiree Callouette referred me to it when she was identified as a third cousin to me on

I can't find where Desiree's family tree meets our's but it would connect a lot of things if we could. My relatives are not on your tree. I could give you that information if it helps? I'd like to talk to you sometime. My phone is 412-***-****. I'll call you if you prefer anytime that is convenient for you.

This started a long and frequent email conversation where Dave and I worked on tracing his ancestry back as far as we could.

Dave's grandfather was Alfonso diNardo, born 15 Ajan 1898 in Sant'Eufemia. Dave knew about 3 brothers, Antonio, Lorenzo and Rocco. The four siblings came to the US between 1910 and 1923. Alfonso, Lorenzo and Rocco lived in Pittsburgh (Hazelwood) and Antonio lived Boston and Watertown, MA.

Dave knew that their father was Giovanni diNardo but didn't know their mother's name.

I've invited Dave to send me text and photos for this section of my diNardo web page.

8 Nov 1945 issue of the Pittsburgh Press

From: "Dave DiNardo" <>

Subject: check this out. Ancestry research
Date: Sun, 3 Aug 2014 15:54:37 -0400

Check this out. When I was a little kid my Dad told me how he won a big contest by painting a picture of a man walking to work at the steel mill with a book in one hand and a lunch box in the other. Due to the fine work of our cousin, Mark DiVecchio, an article from the Pittsburgh Press dated November 8th 1945 shows this to be a true story. It also shows that the top 80 were put on display in the Central Library and the others in the James Anderson Room. It drew my curiosity to find out more about it. I contacted the Carnegie Museum and the Carnegie Library. The Carnegie Library had a scrap book on the subject in the Oliver Room (Special Collections.) There are newspaper clippings on the subject and photos. Apparently there are at least two photos with my Dad in them receiving a War Bond for the first place finish in front of his painting.

Emanuele diNardo

While I was helping Dave research his family, I was doing some other research on the newly released PA Death Certificates. I had found an Emanuele diNardo who died in a drowning accident in 1907. I didn't know who that was. I posted a note to the SEaM Yahoo! Group about him, asking if anyone knew anything:

I was looking through the Pennsylvania death certificates and I found a death certificate for Emanuele diNardo, 22y, who drowned on 5 Nov 1907. The DC doesn't say exacly where the death occured but says "Hopewell, Beaver County". His father was listed as Giovanni and his mother as Mariarosa DiVecchia. Some information on the DC was reported by Roberto DiNardo of Woodlawn.

I just happened to look at the death certificates on the next and previous pages and I found something interesting.

Two other men drowned the same day. All of the DC were signed by the Coroner with an address in Monaca.

The other men were Michale Coutishe, 30y, and Louis Ostovitsch, 30y.

I checked Ellis Island and I found Emanuele came to the US on 23 Mar 1905, going to his cousin Giuseppe DiVecchia at 810 Webster Ave in Pittsburgh.

About a month later, I got this from Dave after he saw my posting on the SEaM Group:

So this Emanuele had to be a brother to the four diNardo brothers who immigrated to the US. Meanwhile, I visited the local FHC and I was able to look the the SEaM birth records for Antonio, Lorenzo and Alfonso. They all showed the father as Giovanni, the mother as Maria Rosa diNardo and one showed the grandfather as Emanuele.

So we were on to something even though the 1907 DC showed Emanuele's mother as Maria Rosa diVecchia.

Armed with an approximate birth year of 1885 (from the age on the DC), I went back to the SEaM birth records and I found the birth record for Emanuele on 13 Feb 1886. Here are my notes:

This was supported once I found the marraige record for Giovanni and Maria Rosa. My notes:

This was something I found a lot in the late 1800's birth records. Giovanni and Maria Rosa were not civilly married (that is, in the townhall) when Emanuele was born. But you can be almost sure that they were married in the Church. Being married in the eyes of God is what was really important - who cared about the government! It should be possible to locate the Church marriage record but that would require a trip to SEaM (they are not microfilmed). In the eyes of the government, children cannot inherit from their parents unless they are civilly married. So apparently, when Emanuele was born, Giovanni and Maria Rosa decided it was time to march down to the municipio and set the record straight. So you can see that they got civilly married about a month after Emanuele was born and the record explicitly states that they have a son. And a notation was written on Emanuele's birth record. (The same thing happened to my great-grandparents - they had two children before they were married in the townhall.)

So the name of Emanuele's mother, listed on the 1907 DC as Maria Rosa diVecchia, is really Maria Rosa diNardo. Why was it listed incorrectly? ( We answered this, see below)

There is another interesting story here.

Emanuele's DC, #105222, had his name originally listed as "Duward Demeuio" or something like that. Looking closely, there were two pens/hands that wrote on this document. Both parents were listed as "Could not be secured", meaning they didn't know. (In the space for a mother's name, there is " dittomark dittomark dittomark ", this is dittoing the "Could not be secured" phrase.) I believe that the first version did not originally list the name of the reporting person. Emanuele was originally listed as born in Austria.

Then someone went back and filled in his correct name, age, the names of parents and reporting person.

No one knew his real name or his family information when the original death certificate was filled out in 1907.

It may have taken many years for his parents in Italy to learn of his death since he was the only brother who had come to the US so far.. Who would have known to write them? When they found out, maybe 1914, they contacted second cousin Roberto diNardo who lived in Woodlawn, PA (later became Aliquippa).

Roberto did some research and found the 1907 death certificate for Emanuele. He prepared affidavits dated 24 Mar and 13 April 1914, correcting the information on the 1907 death certificate. I have copies of those affidavits.

Other interesting tidbits:

  • He worked for Dravo Construction - it or a successor may still be in business and may have records. Did Emanuele and two co-workers die in a work related accident? ( We answered this, see below)
  • The undertaker was Batchelor Bros. - still in business in Monaca and may have records.
  • Buried in Monaca, the most likely place is Union Cemetery. Many people from Sant'Eufemia are buried there. Union is still there and may have records. On 23 Aug 2014, I sent an email to the genealogy director email address at Union Cemetery. I told him of our search and what we found. See email response below.

Dave summed up our research for his close cousins:

Mark told me about the yahoo group SEaM. But anyway, right on the front of the Yahoo group was a recent post by Mark.

I suspected that this man who drowned was actually the brother of my grandfather and none of us knew of his existence. Mark was likewise intrigued by the thought and it also wanted us to nail down the actual identity of my great grand-mother once and for all. Mark pulled it off! He was able to prove that this man who drowned was the brother of my grandfather. .My cousins and brothers and sisters are floored to discover this man existed. Mark also proved who my great grandmother was with a civil marriage license.

Interestingly enough, there were a few documents related to the death of my great uncle. His body was identified by a Robert Di Nardo. His body was turned over to a Robert DiNardo and the Death Certificate was turned over to this same Robert DiNardo. Mark indicated it was a second cousin. That would make this, Robert DiNardo, the grand-son of Desiree's great, great, great, great grandfather. Pretty interesting stuff.

My cousin Mike said that maybe Emanuele died digging an acid well if this spot made Coke which had a lot of acid by-product. Mike is probably in his early 60's. He also said that they visited relatives in Aliquippa when they were little, but can't remember their last names. Tony told me the same thing. We never had a car to go anywhere. We didn't own a car until something like 1974 and it was a real beat up unreliable station wagon. Mike's brother Steve said they visited both Carmella Mazzocca, the brother who went by Jimmy and one of the other sisters who he thinks was a nun.

I continued digging - this time through the Google Newspaper Archives. I knew of the early Beaver County newspaper "The Daily Times". It was the predecessor of the "Beaver County Times". Although it mostly covered Beaver/Rochester/Beaver Falls, I thought there might be something about Emanuele's death. I started reading each page with the 5 Nov 1907 issue.

12 Nov 1907 "Daily Times" page 1
A week ago would be Tuesday 5 Nov. Three men died.
So Dravo Construction was building the new J&L plant at Aliquippa.

13 Nov 1907 "Daily Times" page 1
The remaining body must have been Emanuele.

14 Nov 1907 "Daily Times" page 1
Louis Ostervitch was buried at Union. We suspect Emanuele was buried there as well as both DC say they were buried in Monaca. But neither of their names show up in the on-line index for Union Cemetery:

15 Nov 1907 "Daily Times" page 8
This article does not mention any names but references "a week ago Tuesday" which would be 5 Nov and that three men died. The third man recovered must have been Emanuele diNardo.
Batchelor Bros was the undertaker listed on all three DC.

So that is where we are. We know that Emanuele is now the 5th diNardo brother from this family who came to the US.

Around Oct 2014, more birth/marriage/death records from SEaM became available on-line. I found, in the "Morti, Allegati" records, a record (dated 20 Apr 1914) and letter (dated 26 Jul 1914) from the USA with a copy of the 1914 corrected death certificate for Emanuele diNardo (this was the correction done by his cousin, Roberto diNardo). The copy was certified in PA on 25 Mar 1914. Its interesting in that the documentation also includes a correction stating that his mother was not Maria Rosa diVecchia (as listed on the corrected DC) but rather, Maria Rosa diNardo - which is correct. The correction is dated 5 Nov 1914. This almost makes it certain that his relatives in SEaM only found out about Emanuele's death in 1914.

I sent this email to genealogy director at Union Cemetery:

I have been researching genealogy of my family, diVecchia, and other families from the Italian town of Sant'Eufemia a Maiella. Many people from that town immigrated to Aliquippa.

Recently, Pennsylvania has released death certificates from the first half of the 20th century. Some of the very oldest ones show that many Italians were buried in Union Cemetery. (Possibly this was before Mt. Olivet opened.)

From the death certificates, I've been able to identify many people from Sant'Eufemia buried at Union.

My current mystery is a man named Emanuele diNardo who was killed, along with two other men, in an industrial accident during the construction of J&L on 5 Nov 1907.

I've made up a web page showing what I have found about that man:

There are two names on his death certificate, originally written as "Duward Demeuono", it was corrected by an affidavit in 1914 to his correct name. The DC shows burial on 16 Nov 1907 in Monaca but does not list a cemetery.

The second man killed was listed as Louis Ostovitsch and he was buried on either 14 or 17 Nov 1907, also in Monaca. Batchelor Bros was listed as the undertaker for both men. A newspaper article states that this burial was at Union Cemetery.

Do you have any records or information about either of these two men?

I got your message. I'll look into what I can find. Brad had a video of the cemetery done this past year. He has been going through it as time allows him. It's quite large. The record keeping done by Batchelor's was a mess. We are about 3/4 of the way through the mess and still adding to it. I'm very familiar with the area where alot of the Immigrants where buried. That part of the video hasn't been gone through yet but, I will make a special trip to walk through it and see what I can find for you. Give me some time to do this and look through what I have access to and I'll get back to you soon as I can. I too have lost family to J&L. One was only 18 yrs. old about 35 years ago. That place took many lives. I'll make sure I look at your site! Thanks for letting me see it! I love the history of this area!

Sorry to say I could not find anything on Emanuele. I walked the cemetery looking for a stone for him and for Louis Ostovitsch. There was none to be found yet there are many that are so worn that it hard to say if one of them could have been it. We have no records of them either. I went to the Beaver County Genealogy Society to see what they might have and they looked along with me also to find anything. All they had was the newspaper articles too and the same DC's that you have. It's a very good guess to say they are in Union because of the articles. If anything should turn up I will contact you with our findings. Good luck in your quest.

In Dec of 2014, Dave diNardo took all of the information that we have found and summaried it in a short history of the diNardo branch of his family. His summary included photos from his trip to Sant'Eufemia. He graciously gave me permission to include it here (I've added several more hot links to the photos to make them easier to access):

I did a lot of Ancestry research in conjunction with MaryAnne these last few of years. Learned numerous things that are far, far too numerous to share. However, breaking a few of them out in small chapters is a nice way to share with you during this holiday season. At the very least, you will like to look at some of the pictures/ videos on the link you can click on below.

If MaryAnne and I break out lineage for our grandparents, there are obviously four lines for each of us. Each of those grandparents have distinct ties for generations to a specific place. Ties into those places are inevitably small, remote communities where there were marriages among the same groups of families over and over with very little change in the last names. I will focus on just one of those four grandparent lines for myself (DiNardo). This line is from a remote, small community of people goes back for many centuries.

Click on this link to start.

It will take you to a web site that opens with a picture of the welcome sign coming into Sant'Eufemia a Maiella. That was a picture we took in October of this year, 2014 while entering Sant'Eufemia. Below are chapters of items you can click on that show charts, photos, and videos. I will speak to these items in terms of how the relations are related to me so that you can, in turn, adjust them yourself for how you are related. Just a few people can be identified to have created thousands of descendants who we are among. For this one line of grandparents, I worked with a gentleman who is a hobbyist genealogist with his own roots from Sant'Eufemia and another town near where my wife is from. His name is Mark DiVecchio. Mark is a brilliant guy and probably almost as accomplished at genealogy as anybody on the planet. He created a web site and data base by himself that traces ancestry from the towns his parents are from. He has traced close to 15,000 people. It turns out that I am related to Mark in two different ways (so far). Mark is someone we all owe a debt to in terms of having any genealogy history at all. He has put thousands of hours of work into this and did much of the leg work on this one grandparent line that I have so much information on.

How to use this: Click on "Pictures and videos" near the top when you open the link above first!! After doing that, click on chapter called Ancestry 1. See the picture of our cousin, Mark DiVecchio. Then click on the first ancestry graph. It shows the ancestors of my children, Julia and Tony. You can print this out or expand your screen. The list of specific ancestors goes back into the 1600's. Less than one percent of the world's population can understand their ancestry in terms that long ago. My four grandparent lines are DiNardo, Martucci, Vaccaro, and Mendicino. The very furthest left 1/8 stretch of this chart is our ancestors under the DiNardo line and is 100% tied to Sant'Eufemia in Italy. This town is located high in the mountains where it is extremely rugged and cold. Even in today's world of 2014, there are often mountain passes that slide. When we were there a couple of months ago, two such situations occurred in different spots causing our journey to be at least an hour longer in both spots to reroute around the mountain. If you click on the chart that is two pictures to the right, you can see just that 1/8 chart encompassing the entire chart because it is specifically the line of that single grandparent only (Alphonso DiNardo we called Papap). See how his parent's names were Giovanni Vincenzo DiNardo and Maria Rosa DiNardo. I have learned that in Italy, women do not change their last name when they marry. It makes ancestry research much easier. It also means that it was an instance of a DiNardo marrying a DiNardo. It is almost 100% likely that Giovanni Vincenzo and Maria Rosa are also related going back several generations for which we have not yet connected. There is a good chance we will eventually find the connection though! Look at the third chart in that row which is called "DiNardo Family Tree". There is an extremely large number of individuals on this tree. Mark has the connections for them to thousands of people now, so obviously we can't put it all on one page like this. However, the names on this chart in this format is very useful because they go back a number of generations and help match up ancestry between modern day people and see it in one place. Look it over when you have a chance and see how many instances you can find of a DiNardo marrying another DiNardo. I believe there are four other instances of that on this chart alone and sometimes you can even stretch backwards to see how those two people are distant relatives several generations earlier. This sort of thing is very common in small rural isolated towns all over the world to the era prior to mass transportation. It was often great distances to walk between towns even if you were lucky enough to have had a mule/donkey to help. So it was easier for people to marry among themselves generation after generation. For this reason, if you look at the last names of any of these charts, you can see names that are very closely related to a place as much as they are related to other people. When I had my DNA tested by, the scientists there match DNA to other people whom you are suspected to be related to based upon DNA signatures that have been inherited and passed on generationally. When I see the names I am matched to, it is often very easy to guess how they are related and prove it later with the exact common ancestor. You can look at their tree and see the last names in their ancestry. There are names like Ricci, Fullo and Martucci that are obviously related via a small town in Italy as ancestors of my Paternal grandmother. There are last names like DiCosmo, Del Tondo, Crivelli, Gargaro, and Mancini that are similarly traced back to Sant'Eufemia a Maiella or Roccacaramanico in Italy and have the same persons on their ancestral tree. I have found numerous people living today that are identifiable to have the same ancestors as we do. Inevitably, the people from Sant'Eufemia show up as suspected to be more closely related by than they really are. I have had people shown by to be "probable 3rd or 4th cousins" that are determined to be more distant than that. A couple of these people, we are related to in two different ways (so far) as 5th and 6th cousions. I have had people identified to be probably 5th or 6th cousins that are actually 7th or 8th cousins. But the point is that DNA appears to be more closely related to people from Sant&rsquoEufemia than our true relation really is. That is probably because we are normally related in multiple ways with multiple common ancestors over the years. Mark indicates that there are people from Sant'Eufemia who can be positively identified as being related 4 or 5 different ways. Anybody that you run into who has had ancestors from this town is almost certainly related if you can go back about 9 generations or so.

Sant'Eufemia pictures. Click on the last chapter titled 2014 -11-06.

-DiNardo Hotel, now closed at the very center of Sant'Eufemia.

-The historical list of Mayors from Sant'Eufemia. How many DiNardo's can you count? How many other people that are probably our relatives because we have the same last names in our ancestry tree such as DiVecchia, Pantalone, or Crivelli.

-The house of Concetta DiNardo, Papap's sister. The door at Concetta's house where her daughter, Antoniella Fatore was killed. She didn't answer the door when the German soldiers knocked during WWII, so the German soldier shot the lock off while she was looking though the peephole and killed her.

-Video of the old section of Sant'Eufemia. Video of center of town.

-Pictures with Maria Dimperio. Maria Dimperio was the mail carrier years ago and is in her late 70's. She knows a lot of the history of Sant'Eufemia. She gave John a tour in 2005 and me a tour in 2014.

-Pictures with Isa DiCosmo. Isa is the current hotel owner of Albergo Parco Maiella. She is a great cook and some of the photos are of the food she made for us. Her last name is DiCosmo. DiCosmo is the same last name as some of our ancestors if you go back to look on the ancestry charts. By the way, she is related to Dad's first cousin, Tony DiNardo. Tony's is Uncle Rocco's son. (I learned of Tony through Mark years ago and met the guy while in Boston once.) Anyway, Maria Dimperio is her mom (again, women don't change their last name when they get married).

-There are several dates in the church photos. 1580, 1516, and one with a weird combination of Latin Roman numerals. I think 1580 is probably likely.

-There is a sampling of the baptism records from 1662 to 1877. The individual pages are of Maria Rosa DiNardo and some other DiNardo's. One of the pages had other DiNardo's. It actually contained a relative record that a friend of mine was looking for (She is a 5th cousin named Diane Rogers who lives in Gibsonia.). In retrospect, I should have asked if I could take pictures of all the records that go back to the 1500's because it would easily have allowed us to the chance to make a lot more ancestral connections and extend our tree pretty far and wide. These books are getting pretty fragile and moldy since they are hundreds of years old .-There is also a PDF file attached about Sant'Eufemia. Look in the section under "Fireplace" to see a couple things about Christmas traditions. Look at feast days they used to celebrate for various Saints in Sant'Eufemia. It reminds me of Papap because he always remembered those dates even through they weren't celebrated as feast days outside of Sant'Eufemia.

Look at the chapter that refers to lost history for my father, Manuel. When I was a small boy, he told me several times that he won a major painting contest. He even described the painting as a man carrying a book and a lunch box to work at the steel mill. I never thought much of it it other than curious if we could ever see what the painting looked like. A clue came in from Mark DiVecchio who found a newspaper article dated November 8th, 1945. With that, it was proved that he did win a significant painting contest. I decided to contact Carnegie Museum to see if they would possibly still have the "poster" in archives. They did not but referred me to a gentleman at Carnegie Library who did historical research. This man is often asked to do research similar to this and things come up disappointing. But every once in a while he comes up with a great find. He works in an office where there is a lot of amazing Pittsburgh historical artifacts and historical photos such as the desk Andrew Carnegie worked from and his personal artifacts. Among all these documents was a large embossed binder commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Carnegie Library from 1945 since it was founded in 1895. This was a huge event with a lot of fanfare and media coverage. Apparently one of the centerpiece items of the entire 50th anniversary was this poster contest. The top 80 posters were put on display at the main library and prizes were given to the top 5. Dad won first place and there are numerous photos and newspaper clippings commemorating the event. They are posted here for your perusal. You can actually see what his poster looked like in two of the pictures in which they are awarding a war bond to Manuel. The poster looks as he described it to me when I was little. The gentleman from Carnegie library was so taken aback and exhilarated by how lucky this find was and that he exclaimed, "Holy S***!" when he found it. Julia, Judy and I all went to see this historical room and this special binder and I took smart phone pictures of the contents for you. They are attached here. Also attached are a few pictures of Manuel from his high school senior yearbook since I visited Taylor Alderdice to see if they had this old poster in archives (they did not). There was a collage of pictures in the back of the yearbook of which one of them is a tiny picture that I believe of him in a 3-button sport coat. There is a home room picture. There is a short bio for him that you will get a real kick out of too.

Look at the chapter where you will see a picture of Maria Rosa DiNardo. Interesting stories here. I had history that our great grandmother's name was Marie (rather than Maria) Rosa DiNardo and a note that she had the same last name as her husband. Mark DiVecchio had records of a woman named Maria Rosa DiNardo that was born in 1862 but he had little information on her. He likes two forms of official records to prove who a person is. We just didn't have a way to prove that this woman was the same person even though I knew in my heart that it was my great grand mother. I was determined to accomplish this by the time we traveled to Italy or accomplish that while in Italy 2014. What we came up with was so much more. While looking at a Yahoo group that Mark established for ancestors of Sant'Eufemia, I noticed that he found records of the death of a man named Emanuele DiNardo who perished in 1907 in Aliquippa who happened to have parents named Maria Rosa DiNardo and Giovanni Vincenzo DiNardo. This provided a great place to start. It was rocky but we found many things. He name was indeed Maria Rosa DiNardo. Look at the very last row on the web site I provided you. It is one of the videos of her house in Sant&rsquoEufemia. At first I did not recognize the house for which I had a picture in my mind from when our cousin John visited Sant'Eufemia around 2005. The house looks more worn down and the front door looked missing compared to the video John DiNardo took which visiting Italy. Upon further inspection, it is the same place. The front door has been removed and concreted over. It is probably where Papap was born and also his brothers. It is next door to the Crivelli's house which is significant for which I'll discuss later. Look at the row of pictures just above the video of Maria Rosa's house. The second picture from the right is an entry into baptism records that I found while visiting Chiesa de Sant'Bartolomeo. There is an official entry that was handwritten in Latin on October 16th, 1862 for which she was baptized. It shows who her parents were (Madalena Palma Crivelli, Fabiantonio DiNardo) as well as her God-parents. Don't have her death records but we have three records now of who she was. Her and her husband had a son named Emanuele DiNardo prior to being married in the Civil records. Prior to that they were married in the church. After Emanuele was born, they decided to get married a second time for official civil records so that Emanuele could be named an official heir to their possessions. Look at her photo. There exists a single photo of her that we are aware of which I suspect was taken around 1920 when she was not so young anymore and after two of her children and husband had died. It looks like a formal photo taken in a professional studio standing next to an old Roman style "x-crossed bottom" chair that was popular among patrician class Romans 1,800 years earlier.

Look at the line related to Emanuele DiNardo, brother of Alphonso DiNardo. Checking around with my brothers and sisters and cousins, nobody remembered another brother named Emanuele. Yet the story above seemed to indicate there was another brother named Emanuele. It seemed a little unlikely because he would have been born 13 years earlier than our grandfather. But when you consider that our great grandfather was 50 when Alphonso was born, it was obvious that having a brother 13 years older was definitely possible. Read all the news stories discovered by Mark in this row of information. He was killed with two other immigrants in a terrible accident on the Ohio River. The other two men were Austrian immigrants. Emanuele was mis-identified at the time of his death. His mis-identification was corrected years later by a second cousin to my grandfather named Roberto DiNardo. These poor men were buried alive and drowned while working for Dravo Company to build a new Jones Laughlin Steel plant in Aliquippa, PA. Our cousin Michael DiNardo remembers Papap talking about a relative who died in a similar way and must be this event. In any event, Papap's grandfather was named Emanuele, so it would make sense that is where the name for his oldest brother came from. If you look at a row called Ancestry 1 near the top you can see a page typed by Aunt Helen (married to Uncle John). She was good enough to record information from Papap prior to his death. Papap had a a very thick accent and had a lot of mispronunciations / misinterpretations based on literacy. Thus, Papap did tell Aunt Helen he had a brother named Manuel rather than Emanuele. It would explain why Dad was named Manuel rather than Emanuele. Likewise, we discovered that Papap had two sisters. One was named Concetta. Our cousin John was told this when he visited Italy by people in Sant'Eufemia. He found it hard to believe. But once again and interestingly enough, Papap did tell Aunt Helen that he had a sister named "Conject". Interestingly enough, look at the passport picture of Angelo Roberto DiNardo in this chapter. I received this picture from a lady who is a distant cousin of our's and who's family is from Aliquippa. Does Roberto look just like Papap or what?

Anyway, I hope you found some of this interesting. There is a lot more to share if you care to know, especially about the other grandparent lines. Lot more to do. Merry Christmas to you all!

Ferdindando diNardo - Killed in Action in France 1918

I found information about this Ferdinando when I was searching for information about a different Ferdinando. I had never heard of this man before.

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