Spanish-American War

Spanish-American War


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The Spanish-American War was a four-month conflict between Spain and the United States, provoked by word of Spanish colonial brutality in Cuba. At war's end, America emerged victorious with newly acknowledged respect as a world power.Reasoning for warUntil the 1890s, ambivalence about overseas possessions had restrained America's drive to expand overseas. The chief motive was a sense of outrage at another country's imperialism.It revived only briefly during a 10-year Cuban insurrection from 1868 to 1878. The United States in fact traded more with Cuba than Spain did.On February 24, 1895, insurrection broke out again. Simmering discontent with Spanish rule had been aggravated by the Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894, which took sugar off the free list in the midst of a depression already damaging to the market for Cuban sugar. lay with the rebels, and many Americans extended help to the Cuban revolutionary party that organized the revolt from its headquarters in New York.The insurrectionists' strategy was to wage guerrilla warfare and to damage the island's economic life, which in turn would provoke the concern of American investors. Ordinary Americans were more than ready to look upon the insurrection in the light of their own War of Independence.Pressure for warThe American press had a field day with many of the events leading up to and during war with Spain. William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal and Joseph Pulitzer's New York World became major contributors to the sentiment for conflict with imperialistic Spain.On April 6, 1896, The Second Cleveland Administration attempted to negotiate with Spain, urging that empire to seek peace in Cuba on the basis of home rule. The Spanish politely refused.The direction of official neutrality changed sharply when William McKinley assumed office. He had been elected on a platform that endorsed independence for Cuba, as well as American control of Hawaii and of a Panama canal. On January 25, 1898, as a "courtesy call," but actually for the protection of American citizens and property in Cuba, the battleship USS Maine arrived in Havana harbor.Meanwhile, on February 9, a private letter written by Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, the Spanish minister to Washington, surfaced in the U.S. The letter disparaged President McKinley, thus provoking more anti-Spanish sentiment.On February 15, the Maine exploded in the harbor and sank with a loss of 260 men. Immediately afterwards, the American press sparked a nationwide uproar, and flung various unproven accusations of sabotage at Spain — giving rise to the slogan, "Remember the Maine!"A month later, under mounting pressure from the American people, President McKinley obtained a joint resolution of Congress: It declared Cuba independent and demanded a withdrawal of Spanish forces. It also included an amendment that disavowed any U.S. On April 22, McKinley announced a blockade of Cuba's northern coast and the port of Santiago. Congress — determined to be first — declared war on April 25, retroactive to the April 21 resolution signing.However, the U.S. Army was not prepared for war. Following the Civil War, the nation had drastically reduced the size of its army. Most army units were scattered throughout the West, where they had fought and subdued Native Americans. Regular army divisions, filled with new recruits, rushed to Florida in anticipation of the invasion of Cuba.Guam

Captain Henry Glass, commander of the cruiser USS Charleston, was on the way to Manila when he received orders instructing him to proceed to the island of Guam and wrest it from Spain.On June 20, Captain Glass and his anxious sailors arrived off the shore of Guam. When the Charleston got within range, it fired upon fortifications on the island from three of its port-side cannons. Shortly after the cannon explosions — with little harm done — a ship flying the Spanish flag approached the Charleston, its crew completely unaware of any war taking place. In fact, a Spanish officer climbed aboard the Charleston and asked for gunpowder to return what they believed to be a salute.Governor Juan Marina was then notified by an American courier from the Charleston that a state of war existed between the two countries. The Spaniards could not mount a serious defense; Governor Marina was compelled to surrender the island of Guam without so much as a murmur. Captain Glass flew the red, white, and blue off the coast of Guam as he made way for Manila.The Philippines, Wake Island, and Hawaii eventually became occupied by the U.S. by the end of the war. Guam remained under U.S. control until being overrun by the Japanese during World War II.Dewey takes ManilaThe first battle of the Spanish-American War occurred in the Philippines. On May 1, 1898, Commodore George Dewey, commander of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, pulverized Admiral Patricio Montojo y Pasar’s Spanish forces at the Battle of Manila Bay without losing a man. The Spanish force lost 381 men, while Dewey's squadron sustained only eight wounded.While the Americans were handily capturing Manila Bay, Filipino nationalist Emilio Aguenaldo and his guerilla force pursued the Spanish by land. The Americans then staged their own land assault at the Battle of Manila — ultimately forcing the surrender of Manila to the Americans.Cuban CampaignAt the beginning of war with Spain, the Americans preparation was spotty. They navy was fit, but the army could muster only an ill-assorted force of 28,000 regulars and about 100,000 militiamen. Altogether during the war about 200,000 more militiamen were recruited, mostly as state volunteers. The armed forces of the U.S. suffered badly from both inexperience and maladministration, with the result that more died from disease than from enemy action. The United States' salvation was that the Spanish forces were even worse off.On April 29, Spanish admiral Pascual Cervera left the Cape Verde Islands with four cruisers and three destroyers, turning up in Santiago de Cuba where the U.S. Navy put the Spanish fleet under a blockade. Then a force of some 17,000 troops hastily assembled at Tampa, Florida, under the command of General William Shafter. One significant element of that force was Colonel Leonard Wood's First Volunteer Cavalry, better known as the "Rough Riders," and best remembered because Lt. Colonel Theodore Roosevelt was second in command. Roosevelt, always active, got his regiment ashore quickly. "We disembarked with our rifles, our ammunition belts, and not much else," he remembered. "I carried some food in my pocket, and a light coat which was my sole camp equipment for the next three days."

The major land action of the Cuban Campaign occurred on July 1. About 7,000 Americans took the fortified village of El Caney from about 600 of the enemy garrison. While a much larger force attacked San Juan Hill, a smaller unit, including the dismounted Rough Riders, together with black soldiers from the Ninth and 10th Cavalry, seized the enemy position atop nearby Kettle Hill.On July 3, Admiral Cervera made a run for it, but his ships were little more than sitting ducks to be picked off by a sturdy American navy. The casualties were as one-sided as at Manila: 474 Spaniards were killed and wounded and 1,750 were taken prisoner, while only one American was killed and one wounded. Santiago surrendered with a garrison of 24,000 on July 17.Puerto Rico and war's endOn July 25 a force under General Nelson A. Miles and his convoy of 3,300 soldiers and nine transports (escorted by the USS Massachusetts) moved into Puerto Rico against minor resistance — easily taking the island. The day after General Miles landed, the Spanish government sued for peace through the French ambassador in Washington. After negotiations lasting two weeks, an armistice was signed on August 12, less than four months after the war's beginning.The peace protocol specified that the U.S. annex Puerto Rico and one island in the Ladrones (later called the Marianas), and should occupy the city, bay, and harbor of Manila pending disposition of the Philippines. Among more than 274,000 Americans who served during the war and the ensuing demobilization, 5,462 died, but only 379 in battle. The total wounded numbered 1,704.In February 1899, the Treaty of Paris received the necessary two-thirds ratification in the U.S. Senate by a single vote. America had once again overcome adversity in victorious fashion.AftermathThe United States annexed the former Spanish-ruled colonies of Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam. However, some Americans did not like the idea of the United States playing the part of an imperial power with foreign colonies. President McKinley and the pro-imperialists did, however, win their way over the majority public opinion. Such men as Mark Twain heavily opposed this act of imperialism, which inspired him to pen The War Prayer.Even though the Americans had liberated a Spanish ruled Philippines, insurrection broke out once again, which put McKinley in another rough spot. With help from God and country, McKinley's decision for reform in the Philippines was one of humanity and American heart.Overall, the Spanish-American War became a stepping stone to conciliation between America's still-bitter North and South. The war had provided a common enemy and fostered a sort of rapport that helped to repair bad relations following a bloody American Civil War.


Timeline of the Spanish–American War

The timeline of events of the Spanish–American War covers major events leading up to, during, and concluding the Spanish–American War, a ten-week conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States of America.

United States
Cuba [a]
Revolutionary Government of the Philippines [b]

  • Katipunan[c]

The conflict had its roots in the worsening socio-economic and military position of Spain after the Peninsular War, the growing confidence of the United States as a world power, a lengthy independence movement in Cuba and a nascent one in the Philippines, and strengthening economic ties between Cuba and the United States. [7] [8] [9] Land warfare occurred primarily in Cuba and to a much lesser extent in the Philippines. Little or no fighting occurred in Guam, Puerto Rico, or other areas. [10]

Although largely forgotten in the United States today, [11] the Spanish–American War was a formative event in American history. The destruction of the USS Maine, yellow journalism, the war slogan "Remember the Maine!", and the charge up San Juan Hill are all iconic symbols of the war. [12] [13] [14] [15] The war marked the first time since the American Civil War that Americans from the North and the South fought a common enemy, and the war marked the end of strong sectional feeling and the "healing" of the wounds of that war. [16] The Spanish–American War catapulted Theodore Roosevelt to the presidency, [17] marked the beginning of the modern United States Army, [18] and led to the first establishment of American colonies overseas. [19]

The war proved seminal for Spain as well. The loss of Cuba, which was seen not as a colony but as part of Spain itself, [20] was traumatic for the Spanish government and Spanish people. This trauma led to the rise of the Generation of '98, a group of young intellectuals, authors, and artists who were deeply critical of what they perceived as conformism and ignorance on the part of the Spanish people. They successfully called for a new "Spanish national spirit" that was politically active, anti-authoritarian, and generally anti-imperialistic and anti-military. [21] The war also greatly benefited Spain economically. No longer spending large sums to maintain its colonies, significant amounts of capital were suddenly repatriated for use domestically. [22] This sudden and massive influx of capital led to the development for the first time of large, modern industries in banking, chemicals, electrical power generation, manufacturing, ship building, steel, and textiles. [23] [24]


CUBAN INDEPENDENCE AND "REMEMBER THE MAINE"

Three decades before this war began, in the late 1860s, Cuban guerrilla fighters had fought for national autonomy from Spanish colonization. Unsuccessful then, they had renewed their efforts in the early 1890s. By that time, though, the United States had also become deeply interested in the island. American investments in the Cuban sugar business had grown to more than $50 million, and annual trade between the United States and Cuba was worth twice that amount. In addition, many Americans lived and worked on the island. These interests were jeopardized by the revolution, and by 1896 strong pressure had built for the United States to either purchase Cuba from Spain or, if Spain could not regain control, to intervene militarily. President Grover Cleveland had maintained a policy of neutrality, but President William McKinley, inaugurated in 1897, was predisposed, cautiously, to intervention. Almost as though to precipitate an incident, McKinley renewed the custom of having American warships pay uninvited visits to the Spanish colony.

So it was that on 25 January 1898 one of the nation's newest battleships, the U.S.S. Maine, a pride of the American fleet with its steam-power and its advanced steel construction, showed up in Havana harbor. The Spanish foreign minister, seeing the ship's presence as an act of intimidation, criticized McKinley in a private letter for being "weak" about neutrality and referred to him as a "petty politician." The letter was leaked to William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which promptly printed it under the inflammatory banner headline, "The Worst Insult to the United States in Its History." McKinley demanded an apology from the Spanish government and he received it, but the situation was tinder. The spark came only days later, on the night of 15 February, when the Maine exploded and sank to the bottom of the harbor. When Hearst heard this, he demanded that the story be spread all over the front page and proclaimed, "This means war!" (O'Toole, p. 34).

A Naval Court of Inquiry determined that the cause was a submarine mine, although it took care not to name a guilty party. The jingoists in the United States Senate drew their own conclusion, however, and rallying to the slogan "Remember the Maine," blamed the Spanish government. A rebuttal by a Spanish court of inquiry was dismissed out of hand. McKinley ordered a blockade of Cuba, and four days later, on 25 April 1898, Congress declared war, though it promised to leave as soon as the war of "pacification" was over. A European naval authority, using nothing more than the published testimony in the Navy's own report, later proved that the Naval Court had reached a false conclusion, starting with an incredible, fundamental error—mistaking the location of the explosion. After still more inquiries conducted in the decades following, the true culprits, according to a comprehensive review of a century of debate, were conservative Spanish fanatics loyal to the ruthless and charismatic General Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau, the colonial governor who had been sent to Cuba in 1895 to quell the nationalist rebellion. "They had the opportunity, the means, and the motivation, and they blew up the Maine with a small low-strength mine they made themselves" (Samuels, p. 310).

The shooting war actually began on 11 June with the capture of Guantánamo Bay. The best known and most storied moment in the war occurred on 1 July in the San Juan hills near Santiago de Cuba, the island's second largest city and a Spanish stronghold. Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt had gathered an assortment of Ivy League polo players and western dead shots who were eager to live a rough and hardy life again. At a crucial moment, Roosevelt took unauthorized command. He spurred his horse up the ridge, pistol in one hand and saber in the other. His Rough Riders, together with an African American regiment, captured the position. It was a turning point in the war. Soon thereafter, when the Spanish agreed to surrender 23,000 troops around the city, the end of the war was near. Four years later, the United States made good on its promise and Cuba received its independence.

The war involved 190,000 Spanish troops, while 250,000 American soldiers, 200,000 of them volunteers, were allied with as many as 50,000 Cuban freedom fighters. It cost the United States $250 million and fewer than 3,000 lives—90 percent of whom died from disease and bad food. In the words of G. J. A. O'Toole in The Spanish War, "As wars go this was a cheap one" (O'Toole, p. 17).


    (1783) recognizes the independence of the United States of America
  • John Hancock
  • Henry Laurens
  • John Jay
  • Samuel Huntington
  • Thomas McKean
  • John Hanson
  • Elias Boudinot
  • Thomas Mifflin
  • Richard Henry Lee
  • John Hancock
  • Nathaniel Gorham
  • Arthur St. Clair
  • Cyrus Griffin
  • John Hancock
  • Henry Laurens
  • John Jay
  • Samuel Huntington
  • Thomas McKean
  • John Hanson
  • Elias Boudinot
  • Thomas Mifflin
  • Richard Henry Lee
  • John Hancock
  • Nathaniel Gorham
  • Arthur St. Clair
  • Cyrus Griffin

Presidents of the United States:

  • Guadeloupe
  • Peaceful cessation of Franco-American alliance
  • End of French privateer attacks on American shipping
  • American neutrality and renunciation of claims by France

Location: Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Tripoli

  • Spain cedes Spanish Florida to the United States in the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819
  • The United States forcibly relocates Seminole in northern Florida to a reservation in the center of the peninsula in the Treaty of Moultrie Creek of 1823
  • End of Native armed resistance to U.S. expansion in the Old Northwest (1832)
  • The United States purchases Potawatomi land in the Treaty of Tippecanoe (1832)
  • The United States purchases the rest of Potawatomi land west of the Mississippi River in the Treaty of Chicago (1833)
  • Out of the Texan soldiers serving from January through March 1836, 78% had arrived from the United States after October 2, 1835. [Note 1][5]
  • The Republic of Texas gains its independence.
  • Texas is annexed into the United States in 1845.

William Henry Harrison(March 4, 1841 – April 4, 1841)

John Tyler (April 4, 1841 –March 4, 1845)

Zachary Taylor (March 4, 1849 – July 9, 1850)

Millard Fillmore (July 9, 1850 – March 4, 1853)

Franklin Pierce (March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1857)

Zachary Taylor (March 4, 1849 – July 9, 1850)

Millard Fillmore (July 9, 1850 – March 4, 1853)

Franklin Pierce (March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1857)

James Buchanan (March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861)

Abraham Lincoln (March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865)

Andrew Johnson (April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869)

Ulysses S. Grant (March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877)

Rutherford B. Hayes (March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1881)

James A. Garfield (March 4, 1881 – September 19, 1881)

Chester A. Arthur (September 19, 1881 – March 4, 1885)

Grover Cleveland (March 4, 1885 – March 4, 1889)

Benjamin Harrison (March 4, 1889 – March 4, 1893)

Grover Cleveland (March 4, 1893 – March 4, 1897)

William McKinley (March 4, 1897 – September 14, 1901)

Theodore Roosevelt (September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909)

William Howard Taft (March 4, 1909 – March 4, 1913)

Woodrow Wilson (March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921)

Warren G. Harding (March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923)

Calvin Coolidge (August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929)

James Buchanan (March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861)

  • By late 1850s, most Seminoles forced to leave their land a few hundred remain deep in the Everglades on land unwanted by white settlers

James Buchanan (March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861)

James Buchanan (March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861)

James Buchanan (March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861)

  • Resolution through negotiation replaced as governor of the territory
  • Full amnesty for charges of sedition and treason issued to the citizens of Utah Territory by President James Buchanan on the condition that they accept American Federal authority

James Buchanan (March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861)

James Buchanan (March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861)

Abraham Lincoln (March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865)

Part of pre-Civil War conflicts

  • Dissolution of the Confederate States
  • U.S. territorial integrity preserved
  • Beginning of the Reconstruction Era
  • U.S. Federal government expands further control over land and railroad rights in the Indian Territory.

Abraham Lincoln (March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865)

Andrew Johnson (April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869)

Ulysses S. Grant (March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877)

Location: Minnesota and Dakota

Andrew Johnson (April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869)

Ulysses S. Grant (March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877)

American military victory

American diplomatic failure

  • Withdrawal of American forces
  • Korea retains isolationist policies
  • Eventual signing of the United States–Korea Treaty of 1882

Location: Texas and Mexico

Location: Montana, Dakota and Wyoming

Location: Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana

Location: Texas and Mexico

Location: Arizona and Mexico


William McKinley (March 4, 1897 – September 14, 1901)


Theodore Roosevelt (September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909)


William Howard Taft (March 4, 1909 – March 4, 1913)


Woodrow Wilson (March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921)

  • Allies and Rebels compromise for peace Tripartite Convention
  • United States acquires American Samoa
  • United Kingdom withdraws claim in exchange for concessions in the Solomon Islands
  • Germany acquires German Samoa becomes paramount chief of Samoa

Limited Foreign Support:
Empire of Japan


Theodore Roosevelt (September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909)


Theodore Roosevelt (September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909)


William Howard Taft (March 4, 1909 – March 4, 1913)


Woodrow Wilson (March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921)

Warren G. Harding (March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923)

Calvin Coolidge (August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929)

    suppressed
  • Permanent border wall established
  • Pancho Villa's troops no longer an effective fighting force [6]
  • Mexican Constitutionalist faction leader Venustiano Carranzarecognised as the sole leaders of the Mexican government by the United States

Woodrow Wilson (March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921)

Woodrow Wilson (March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921)

Warren G. Harding (March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923)

Calvin Coolidge (August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929)

Herbert Hoover (March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933)

Location: Utah and Colorado

Warren G. Harding (March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923)

Calvin Coolidge (August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929)

Herbert Hoover (March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933)

Franklin D. Roosevelt (March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945)

Warren G. Harding (March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923)

Calvin Coolidge (August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929)

Location: Europe, Africa, Asia, Middle East, the Pacific Islands, and coast of North and South America

  • End of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires
  • Formation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East
  • Transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers
  • Establishment of the League of Nations

Location: Russia, Mongolia, and Iran

  • Collapse of the Third Reich
  • Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires
  • Creation of the United Nations
  • Emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as superpowers
  • Beginning of the Cold War

Franklin D. Roosevelt (March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945)

Harry S. Truman (April 12, 1945 –January 20, 1953)

  • Occupation of Hopeh and Shantung provinces
  • Japanese and Koreans repatriated
  • American and other foreign nationals evacuated

Dwight D. Eisenhower (January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961)

Location: Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos

  • Withdrawal of American forces from Indochina
  • Dissolution of the Republic of Vietnam
  • Communist governments take power in South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia[7]

John F. Kennedy (January 20, 1961 –November 22, 1963)

Lyndon B. Johnson (November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969)

Richard Nixon (January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974)

Gerald Ford (August 9, 1974 – January 20, 1977)

Part of the Korean conflict and the Cold War

Richard Nixon (January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974)

  • Brazil
  • Paraguay
  • Nicaragua
  • Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Honduras
  • Fall of the Bosch regime elected as the new president
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Sudan
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Libya
  • South Yemen
  • Multinational forces fail to prevent collapse of Lebanese Army into Syrian- or Israeli- supported militias [8][9]
  • Multinational forces evacuated after the US embassy and US Marine barracks are bombed by the Islamic Jihad Organization
  • Multinational forces oversee withdrawal of Palestine Liberation Organization continues until 1990
  • President Hafez al-Assad continues his occupation of Lebanon until his son and later president Bashar al-Assad orders a withdrawal from the country

Ronald Reagan (January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989)

  • Military dictatorship of Hudson Austin deposed
  • Defeat of Cuban military presence
  • Restoration of constitutional government

George H. W. Bush (January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993)

Bill Clinton (January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001)

George W. Bush (January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009)

  • Failure to capture SNA leader Mohamed Farrah Aidid specific Aidid lieutenants captured
  • Withdrawal of U.S. forces 5 months after losses in the Battle of Mogadishu
  • The UN mandate saved close to 100,000 lives, before and after U.S. withdrawal is ongoing

Bill Clinton(January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001)

  • Ceasefire reached through Kumanovo Agreement of June 1999. after Russian and Finnish envoys visit Belgrade
  • Yugoslav forces pull out of Kosovo
  • UN Resolution 1244 confirming Kosovo as de jure part of FRY
  • De facto separation of Kosovo from FR Yugoslavia under UN administration
  • Return of Albanian refugees after attempted ethnic cleansing of Albanians
  • KLA veterans join the UÇPMB, starting the Preševo insurgency
  • Around 200,000 Serbs, Romani, and other non-Albanians fleeing Kosovo and many of the remaining civilians becoming victims of abuse
  • Three Chinese journalists were killed in United States bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade
  1. ^ Advisory role from the forming of the MAAG in Vietnam to the Gulf of Tonkin incident.
  2. ^ Direct U.S. involvement ended in 1973 with the Paris Peace Accords. The Paris Peace Accords of January 1973 saw all U.S forces withdrawn the Case–Church Amendment, passed by the U.S Congress on 15 August 1973, officially ended direct U.S military involvement .
  3. ^ The war reignited on December 13, 1974 with offensive operations by North Vietnam, leading to victory over South Vietnam in under two months.

Taliban splinter groups

    Army
    (2001) (2001)
  • Destruction of al-Qaeda and Taliban militant training camps (2001)
  • Fall of the Taliban government (2001)
  • Establishment of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan under the Karzai administration
  • Start of Taliban insurgency in May 2011
  • Death of Mohammed Omar in July 2013
  • Over two-thirds of Al-Qaeda's operatives killed or captured (ISAF) disbanded in December 2014
  • Commencement of Resolute Support Mission in December 2014
  • All US troops to withdraw by September 11, 2021

Barack Obama (January 20, 2009 – January 20, 2017)

Donald Trump (January 20, 2017 – January 20, 2021)

Joe Biden (January 20, 2021 –Incumbent)

    and occupation of Iraq
  • Overthrow of Ba'ath Party government
  • Emergence of significant insurgency, rise of al-Qaeda in Iraq, and severe sectarian violence[16]
  • Subsequent reduction in violence and depletion of al-Qaeda in Iraq [17][18]
  • Establishment of democratic elections and formation of new Shia-led government of U.S. forces from Iraq in 2011
  • Stronger Iranian influence in Iraq [19] [dubious – discuss] [20][21][22] leading to the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, the successor of al-Qaeda in Iraq [23][24]

Barack Obama (January 20, 2009 – January 20, 2017)

Barack Obama (January 20, 2009 – January 20, 2017)

Donald Trump (January 20, 2017 – January 20, 2021)

Joe Biden (January 20, 2021 –Incumbent)

  • Number of pirate attacks dramatically decreased
  • The US Office of Naval Intelligence have officially reported that in 2013, only 9 incidents of piracy were reported and that none of them were successfully hijacked [citation needed]
  • Piracy drops 90% [27]
  • Overthrow of the Gaddafi government and the killing of Muammar Gaddafi
  • Assumption of interim control by National Transitional Council (NTC) of NTC as sole governing authority for Libya by 105 countries, UN, EU, AL and AU leading to the second civil war in 2014 [28]
  • Founder and leader of the LRA Joseph Kony goes into hiding
  • Senior LRA commander Dominic Ongwen surrenders to American forces in the Central African Republic and is tried at the Hague[7][8]
  • Majority of LRA installations and encampments located in South Sudan and Uganda abandoned and dismantled
  • Small scale LRA activity continues in eastern DR Congo, and the Central African Republic

Donald Trump (January 20, 2017 – January 20, 2021)

Joe Biden (January 20, 2021 –Incumbent)

  • Tens of thousands of ISIL fighters killed
  • American-led forces launch over 13,300 airstrikes on ISIL positions in Iraq
  • Heavy damage dealt to ISIL forces, ISIL loses 40% of its territory in Iraq by January 2016, and all of its territory in Iraq in December 2017
  • Multinational humanitarian and arming of ground forces efforts
  • 200 ISIL created mass graves found containing up to 12,000 people [29]
  • Ongoing US-led Coalition advising and training of Iraqi and Kurdish ground forces
  • US maintains limited military presence in Iraq

Donald Trump (January 20, 2017 – January 20, 2021)

Joe Biden (January 20, 2021 –Incumbent)

Israel (limited involvement against Hezbollah and government forces only)


Spanish-American War - History

Causes of the Spanish American War

Comparisons of the Navies

Comparisons of the Armies

The Battle of Manila Bay and other actions in the Philippines

The Spanish American War in Cuba

Time Line of the Spanish American War

MP3 Lectures on the Spanish American War

Test yourself on the Spanish American War

Spanish American War Links

Early movies about the Spanish American War

The Spanish American , called Guerra Hispano-Estadounidense in Spanish was was fought between Spain and America from April 25 to August 10, 1898 . The war was fought in some of the last remaining colonies of Imperial Spain : Cuba, the Philippines and Puerto Rico .

Crucible of Empire: The Spanish American War

The war arose out of the indignation of Americans of Spain's brutal suppression of an independence struggle in nearby Cuba, fanned by sensational stories published by American newspapers and belief in some quarters of Americas manifest destiny to continue to expand and join in the grab for colonies as the European powers were doing . The still unsolved explosion of the USS Maine on February 15, 1898 in Havana while protecting American interest brought clamors for war from many Americans, who felt the Spanish were behind the explosion . On April 11, 1898 , the American Congress passed a resolution recognizing the independence of Cuba .

Spain for her part , viewed Cuba as an integral part of Spain and the American demand for Spain to withdrawal from Cuba after centuries of rule there since the discovery by Columbus to be unacceptable and declared war on America on April 23, 1898 .

Even though the war was of a short duration , it had many important consequences for America, Spain and the world .

Many historians regard the Spanish American War and the year 1898 as a sharp dividing line for America .Before America was regarded as a country of rising economic power, but a second rate military power. After the war and its new found holding in the Americas and Asia, America became a respected member of the Imperialists club, not without serious misgivings about this at home . How can a democracy be an empire ?

The war, which was so short in duration and lopsided with American victories, makes the outcome seem inevitable. But it could have turned out differently. If the Spanish had marshalled their naval strength as Admiral Cervera wanted and stayed in Spanish home waters ( with the repaired battleship Pelayo and armored cruiser Carlos V ) under the protection of powerful shore batteries and drawn the American Navy to them, the Spanish might have had a better outcome . If General Weyler had been in charge of Spanish operation in eastern Cuba instead of the incompetent Linares, he may have been able to drag the war out long enough for yellow fever and malaria to decimate the American troops as it was starting to do after the surrender of Santiago de Cuba . And what of Spain ? True to the law of unintended consequences found itself stronger economically after the war. Modern industries sprang up .It no longer had the huge drain of the colonies and the endless Cuban rebellion which cost hundred of thousands of Spanish lives . Politically,however, the loss of the did destabilize the country .One aspect of the war that many Americans didn't understand was, that for the Spanish, the war was about maintaining honor, not winning the war. To not fight at all and give up its five hundred year old colonies would have had disastrous consequences in Spain, maybe have even led to civil war .


Spanish American War

Robert Bruce Payne (1872-1937) was an undergraduate at the University of Nebraska when war broke out between the United States and Spain in April 1898. He enlisted on May 10 of that year as a private in Company D of the First Nebraska Volunteer Infantry Regiment. His short diary, written in a discarded Spanish account book, is now in the possession of one of his daughters and was published in Nebraska History (Winter 1988). It is significant partly because it offers a new description of the beginning of hostilities between Filipino and American forces after Spain had turned over the Philippines to the United States.

"Febr. 7: [18]99 Today has been an uneventful day. The dead were buried and a little skirmishing done but few natives could be found. . . . By the way these are the two men who started the war. The sergeant, a Dutch man [Sgt. Joseph De Vriendt], told the guard [Pvt. William Grayson], a man of little character, not to stand any monkey work. There was a lieut. on the Filipino side who had about as much sense as the afore mentioned who had been getting drunk and causing trouble before. He came down and ordered a post of ours moved back which had been moved up to hold one in check which had been pushed up by the Filipinos. This had been done during the day and when night came the lieut. came up and was halted by our sentinels. He called back 'Alto,' the Spanish for 'halt' at which our sentinel fired upon him and it is stated killed him but he was taken back by the native soldiers with him."

The war with the Filipinos continued sporadically until mid-1902 and cost the United States more lives than the previous war with Spain. Having volunteered to fight the Spanish, Payne, who participated in a total of seventeen engagements against the Spanish and the rebels, became increasingly disillusioned with the bloody campaign being waged against the Filipinos.


Spanish-American War - History

The Spanish American war was fought on two fronts, in the Asia-Pacific region and in the Caribbean which is much closer to the United States. The two islands in dispute in the Pacific region were the Philippines and the small island of Guam.

Events Leading Up to the War

Apr 10. Returning from exile, José Martí comes back to Cuba to continue working towards independence from Spain.

May 19. Martí is killed during a battle against Spanish troops at the Battle of Dos Ríos.

Feb 28. The Cuban effort to gain independence is recognized and supported by the Senate of the United States. A few days later, March 2, the House of Representatives recognizes the independence movement in Cuba.

Feb 15. More than 266 men are killed aboard the Maine when it explodes inexplicably while at port.

Spanish-American War

Apr 23. Spain declares war on the U.S.

May 1. Admiral Dewey and his Asiatic Squadron fights the Spanish fleet in the Battle of Manila Bay.

May 11. A squadron of US Navy ships enter the port of Cardenas to engage Spanish gunboats in the Battle of Cardenas.

May 12. Warships from the US Navy begin the Bombardment of San Juan, Puerto Rico, in an attempt to weaken Spanish fortifications in that island.

Jun 10. US Marines, numbering nearly 647, make landfall that becomes known as the Invasion of Guantanamo Bay.

Jun 20. In the Capture of Guam, Captain Harry Glass, commander of the USS Charleston captures Guam without shedding any blood. This makes the island the first American possession in the Pacific region.

Jun 24-Jul 3. Cuba becomes a battleground for numerous incursions between Spanish and American forces, these include the Battles of Las Guasimas, Manzanillo, Tayacoba, the Aguadores, El Caney, San Juan and Kettle Hill, and Santiago de Cuba.

July 8. Admiral Dewey and the US Naval fleet occupy Isla Grande in Manila Bay.

July 17. Santiago finally surrender after the Siege of Santiago, nearly 34,000 prisoners from Spain are taken by General Shafter.

Aug 9. The surrender of Puerto Rico takes place.

Aug 12. A ceasefire brings an end to the Spanish-American war.

Aug 13. The surrender of Manila takes place. 10,000 US troops are sent to occupy the Philippines.


American Ships in the Spanish-American War

#2: The U.S.S. Brooklyn fought off the Spanish ship the Cristobal Colon and played an important part in the sea fight off the coast of Santiago on July 3, 1898.

Repair was needed for the battleship U.S.S. Chicago, including replacing the rig and placing new machinery such as a new battery of rapid-firing guns.

In May 1898 the U.S.S. Columbia collided with a British merchant steamer. It was the first serious mishap to befall any vessel of the U.S. Navy after the outbreak of the war.

The U.S.S. Constitution at Charlestown Navy Yard in Boston, Massachusetts. This war ship carries guns on two decks.

Commanded by Henry W. Lyon, this dispatch boat carried the flag of the President and Secretary of the Navy for 12 years and carried more distinguished guests than any other boat in the U.S. Navy. The U.S.S. Dolphin was one of the first modern ships constructed for naval service in the U.S. During the war it was transformed into a war-vessel and at Guantanamo Bay, along with the U.S.S. Marblehead, the U.S.S. Dolphin protected U.S. Marines from defeat.

#2: Detail of a rapid-fire gun on board the U.S.S. Helena.

#3: Detail of a Driggs-Schroeder rapid-fire gun on board the U.S.S. Helena. This rapid-fire gun was capable of firing 20 shells a minute and thus was key weapon in the destruction of Spanish Admirals Montojo and Cervera's fleets.

The U.S.S. Iowa was the biggest battleship in the U.S. fleet. It was involved in the first bombardment of the fort near Santiago. It cost three million dollars to build and was equipped with 11,000 horsepower.

The U.S.S. Katahdin was a harbor defense ram with a gigantic projectile, and at the time of the war was the only vessel of its type in the world. It was held in reserve during the war for possible harbor defense there was never an opportunity to display its efficiency.

The U.S.S. Lehigh was a monitor boat specifically used for harbor defense of the New England coast.

On June 8, 1898, along with the U.S.S. Yankee, the U.S.S. Marblehead bombarded the shore at Guantanamo while the U.S.S. St. Louis cut the French cable. The boat cost $674,000.

The U.S.S. Miantonomoh was the first armor vessel of the new army.

#2: The military mast of the U.S.S. New Orleans included three tops. The two lower ones were used for rapid-fire and machine guns, and the top one was used for the electric search light.

This armored cruiser was used as a battleship under the command of Rear-Admiral Sampson. It was the ship from which the first shot was fired on April 27, 1898, the vessel bombarded Matanzas.

On Saturday, August 20, 1898, the Oregon returned to New York City. The ship travelled a total of 14,000 miles.


Contents

American Indian Wars (1622–1774) Edit

  • Samuel Murphy (1758–1851) — Virginia colonists. Last participant of Lord Dunmore's War[1]
  • Noah Johnson (1698–1798) — New England colonists. Last participant of Lovewell's War[2][3]

French and Indian War (1754–1763) Edit

  • John Owen (1741–1843) — British Army. Enlisted in 1758. Also fought in the Revolutionary War. [4][5]
  • Jonathan Benjamin (1738–1841) — British Army. Also fought in the Revolutionary War. [6]

American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) Edit

    (1759–1869) — Continental Army. Last veteran drawing a pension awarded by Congress granted a pension in 1867 even though he could not prove his service. [8] (1755–1841) — Continental Army. Last Badge of Military Merit recipient. (1759–1866) — Continental Army. Served with the 2nd Light Dragoons at Brandywine.
  • Samuel Downing (1761–1867) — Continental Army. Fought at Saratoga. [9][10] (1764–1868) — Continental Army. Last verifiable veteran. Served at Yorktown. Six month service period was too short to qualify for pension. [11] Granted a pension in 1867. (1753–1868) — Continental Army. Claimed last African American veteran. Served at Yorktown and Battle of Brandywine. Awarded Gold Medal of Valor. [12][13][14][15]
  • William Richardson (1765-1873) Served from Age 17 in Border Wars and also in War of 1812. Also listed in 1929 DAR Publication Official Roster Soldiers of the American Revolution Buried in the State of Ohio [p. 307] [16]
  • Nicholas Gerrit Veeder (1761-1862) New York militiaman [17]

American Indian Wars (1775–1924) Edit

    (1872–1973) — U.S. Army. Last Army veteran. [18] (1870–1965) — U.S. Army. Last Indian Scout. [19][20] (1857–1955) — Lakota Tribe. Last Native American participant of the Battle of the Little Big Horn. Also survived Wounded Knee. [21][22]
  • John Winchell Cullen (1838–1939) — U.S. Army. Fought in the Yakima War. [23][24]
  • Henry L. Riggs (1812–1911) — U.S. Army. Served in the Black Hawk War. [25]

Shays' Rebellion (1786–1787) Edit

Whiskey Rebellion (1791–1794) Edit

War of 1812 (1812–1815) Edit

Toledo War (1835–1836) Edit

  • Lewis W. Pearl (1815–1914) — Michigan State Militia. Later served in the Mexican-American War and the Civil War. [31][32]

Texas Revolution (1835–1836) Edit

Dorr Rebellion (1841–1842) Edit

Bear Flag Revolt (1846) Edit

Mexican–American War (1846–1848) Edit

    (1831–1929) — U.S. Navy. Served on USS Potomac and USS Allegheny. [39]
  • William Fitzhugh Buckner (1828–1929) — U.S. Army. Fought at Taos. [40][41]

Bleeding Kansas (1854–1861) Edit

  • Israel Adam Broadsword (1846–1952) — Free-Stater. Joined a Kansas Home Guard unit in 1859 to protect against raids. Later served in the Civil War. [42] : 857
  • John Brown (1844–1940) — Border Ruffian. Participated in the Lawrence Massacre with Quantrill's Raiders. [43][44]

American Civil War (1861–1865) Edit

    (1850–1956) — Union Army. Last verified Union veteran. [45] (1843–1953) — Union Army. Last combat veteran. Served at First Bull Run, Antietam, and Chancellorsville. [46] (1847–1951) — Confederate Army. Last verified Confederate veteran. See Last surviving Confederate veterans.
  • Alden G. Howell (1841–1947) — Confederate Army. Last commissioned Confederate officer. [42] : 1008 [47] : 1458
  • James Frederick Lyon (1843–1946) — Union Army. Last commissioned Union officer. [42] : 1007 (1844–1938) — Union Army. Last Medal of Honor recipient.

Korean Expedition (1871) Edit

Spanish–American War (1898) Edit

    (1882–1993) — U.S. Army. Claimed to have served in the 9th Cavalry.
  • Jasper Garrison (1880–1987) — U.S. Army. Last verified veteran. [48]
  • Jesse D. Langdon (1881–1975) — U.S. Army. Last member of the Rough Riders. [49][50] (1877–1970) — U.S. Navy. Served on USS Marblehead. Last Medal of Honor recipient.

Second Samoan Civil War (1898–99) Edit

Banana Wars (1898–1934) Edit

    (1906–1993) — U.S. Marine Corps. Served in Nicaragua. Last Medal of Honor recipient. (1893–1986) — U.S. Marine Corps. Served in Haiti. Last Medal of Honor recipient. (1889–1981) — U.S. Navy. Served on USS Florida at Veracruz. Last Medal of Honor recipient. (1887–1968) — U.S. Marine Corps. Served in Dominican Republic. Last Medal of Honor recipient.

Boxer Rebellion (1899–1901) Edit

    (1885–1992) — U.S. Navy. [51]
  • Walter Pleate (1876–1985) — U.S. Army. Also served in the Philippine–American War. [52] (1877–1978) — U.S. Navy. Served on USS Newark. Last Medal of Honor recipient.

Philippine–American War (1899–1902) Edit

  • Nathan E. Cook (1885–1992) — U.S. Navy. Served on USS Pensacola. [53][51]
  • Walter Pleate (1876–1985) — U.S. Army. (1885–1969) — U.S. Army. Last Medal of Honor recipient.

Border War (1910–1919) Edit

World War I (1914–1918) Edit

    (1901–2011) — U.S. Army. Last U.S. veteran, served with the 1st Fort Riley Casual Detachment. [55] (1901–2007) — U.S. Navy. Served on USS New Hampshire. (1898–2007) — U.S. Army. Last combat veteran. [56] (1899–2007) — U.S. Marine Corps. Served in the 6th Marine Regiment[57] (1891–1990) — U.S. Navy. Served on USS Florida and USS President Lincoln. Last Medal of Honor recipient.
  • Henry Forster (1889–1989) — Aéronautique Militaire. Last American member of the La Fayette Escadrille. [58]

Pancho Villa Expedition (1916–1917) Edit

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War (1918–1925) Edit

American and other Allied forces were involved in the Polar Bear Expedition which began during World War I and continued into the Russian Civil War


The Spanish American War

The 1st Idaho Volunteer Infantry served in the Philippines during the Spanish American War and the Philippine American War.

The History

The 1st Idaho Volunteer Infantry was mustered into service at Boise, Idaho between May 7 and 18, 1898. At the time of mustering in, the unit consisted of thirty-two offices and 644 enlisted men, making it one of the smallest volunteer regiments formed during the war.

On June 27, 1898, the 1st Idaho left the United States for the Philippines aboard the transport Morgan City. It arrived in the Philippines on July 31. On August 13, the unit took part in the capture of the city of Manila. The fall of Manila was a staged battle, in that it had been pre-determined through negotiation that the city would surrender after a brief show of force to preserve Spanish honor. Some deaths did occur as the fighting forces on both sides were not privy to the negotiations, however, the 1st Idaho Volunteer Infantry suffered no casualties in the assault. Lt. Col. John Jones of the 1st Idaho reported:

“…At 7 o’clock that morning it [the regiment] was under arms, and promptly at 8 o’clock was in the position to which it was assigned. At noon it was advanced by order of General Anderson to the trenched, from which a regiment of General Greene’s brigade had been removed, and remained there until 4 p.m., when one battalion was ordered forward to this city [Quartel de Malate] and the other left to hold the trenches and check any advance movements by the insurgents. Not being under direct fire of the enemy I have no casualties to report.”

The fighting between Spain and the United States had ended by armistice on the very day that Manila fell – August 13 (August 12 in Cuba). However, word did not arrive in the Philippines in time to stop the assault, to marked advantage of the Americans. The Spanish American War ended on December 10, 1898 with the signing of the Treaty of Paris.

On February 4, 1899 fighting broke out between the American forces and the Filipino forces. This was the onset of the Philippine American War, the second war in which the First Idaho was involved and the war in which it would suffer its battle casualties. The unit saw action at Santa Anna on February 5, 1899, and at Colcocan, on February 10 and 11, 1899.

The 1st Idaho Volunteer Infantry remained in Philippines until July 30, 1899, when it departed for the United States. The unit arrived in the U.S. on August 29, 1899 and was mustered out on September 25, 1899 at San Francisco. At the time of mustering out, the unit had shrunk in size to consist of 32 officers and 444 enlisted men.

During its term of service, the unit had one officer and four enlisted men killed in action. In addition, the unit had two more enlisted men die as a result of wounds received in action, 13 more died of disease, one man drowned and one man died as the result of an accident. In addition, two officers and 23 enlisted men were wounded in action. Twenty-five enlisted men were discharged on disability, two men deserted and eight men were court-martialed.


This is a photo of company H of the 1st Idaho Volunteer Infantry. The officer seated in the front row, fourth man from the left is Captain, later Major, Frank Fenn.


This is a photo of some of the officers of the 1st Idaho Volunteer Infantry. Seated in the center of the front row is Frank Fenn. Fenn was appointed Captain of Co. H, 1st Idaho Volunteer Infantry and served as acting Major from April 1899 to September 1899 when he was promoted to Major. Fenn had previously been with Perry at Whitebird, during the 1877 Nez Perce Indian Uprising. In this photo, a piece of canvas was used as a background. Behind the men appears to be a river. Fenn lived in Kooskia, Idaho after retiring from the Forest Service in 1920. He died in 1927 and was buried in Pine Grove Cemetery at Kooskia.


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